Literal Idiomatic Translation
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The Literal Idiomatic Translation Glossary



By Hal Dekker


Last update to the LITG:  2022.02.24


Last update to this page:  2024.02.03



References for Strong's #s 3320 -



3320 - middle wall (mesotoichon, noun) - Within the temple area in Jerusalem, before its destruction by the Romans in about 70 AD, the temple area was divided into several areas.  Upon entering the temple area through the massive double and triple stone archways, the Huldah gates, worshippers would come into the court of the gentiles.  This court was as far as gentiles could enter into the temple area, and it was partitioned or fenced off by a large wall separating it from the next inner court, the court of the women.  Passing through the court of the women toward the center of the temple area, next were the huge stone archways leading into the court of Israel, into which only males were allowed to enter.   And so between the huge Huldah gates leading into the temple area and the huge stone archways leading into the court of Israel, were the courts of the gentiles and women, separated by only a middle wall between them, else they would both together form one huge court.  Upon the walls near the entrances into the court of the women were warnings to the gentiles that they were forbidden to enter into the court of the women.  This middle wall between the courts kept the gentiles (the uncircumcision) out from mixing with the children of Israel (the circumcision) within.  Apostle Paul refers to this middle wall between the courts of the gentiles and women in Eph. 2:14, 11-22.  See 3941 - side-housers.



3328 - having been thrown (metaballō, verb) - An idiom, or hyperbolic colloquial usage virtually identical in meaning to our English idioms, "being knocked for a loop" and "being thrown for a loop".  Luke uses this idiom in Acts 28:6 to describe the very unexpected surprise of the natives of the island of Melita, that Paul, after his shipwreck there, didn't fall down dead after being bitten by a snake.



3332 - he lifted it (metairō, verb) - This may be an idiom similar in meaning to our Western idiom to hoof it, meaning to go on foot.  The gospel writer Matthew uses this idiom twice, Mat. 13:53 and Mat. 19:1.  In the contexts the idiom appears to emphasize Jesus' determination to keep on the move to carry out his ministry, rather than how he kept moving.  Try to imagine most all travel being done at a much slower pace in those days, on the back of an animal, or mostly on foot, rather as it is in our modern age in which we have a selection of multiple forms of high speed personal and mass transportation vehicles.



3439 - [The] only genus (monogenēs, pron. adj.) - A compound of two words from 3441 (monos, adj.) and 1085 (genos, noun).  Monos is best translated as only or alone, and genos is best transliterated as genus.  A genus is a "major category in the classification of animals, plants, etc., ranking above a species and below a family: it can include one species or many similar species..." (Webster's New World Dictionary & Thesaurus).  For example:


I.       Kingdom                Animal                                                      Vegetable

II.      Sub-Kingdom        Vertebrata                                                Phanerogamia

III.     Class                      Mammalia                                                 Dicotyledon

IV.    Order                      Carnivora          Primate                          Rosiflorae

V.     Family                    Canine               Hominidae                     Rosaciae

VI.    Genus                    Dog                   Homo "man"               Rose

VII.   Species                  Spaniel              Homo Sapien "wise"    Tea-rose


Words out of any context have general meanings based upon their roots and any affixes to them.  But words used in contexts can be given more precise meanings, based upon how those words are used in any given context, which contextual meanings reflect their common colloquial or idiomatic usages. 


From examining all 47 usages of monos in the UBS4, its clear that it's range of nuances of meaning are limited to primarily only or alone


From examining the contextual usages of all 20 occurrences of genos in the UBS4, and 9 occurrences of monogenēs in the UBS4 text, it is clear that their common colloquial usage varies across 7 different kinds of genos:


1.    Genus of fishes - Mat. 13:47.


2.    Genus of demon spirits - Mat. 17:21, Mark 9:29.  Jesus' use of genos in reference to demon spirits, together with the additional contextual facts, reveals that their are various genus of demon spirits.


3.    Genus of nationality - Mark 7:26; Acts 4:36, 7:19, 18:2, 24; 2 Cor. 11:26; Gal. 1:14; Phil. 3:5.


4.    Genus of specific human bloodline - Luke 7:12, 8:42, 9:38; Acts 4:6, 7:13, 13:26; Heb. 11:17; Rev. 22:16.


5.    Genus of birth in God's Spirit - John 1:14, 18, 3:16, 18; 1 John 4:9; Acts 17:28-29; 1 Pet. 2:9.


6.    Genus of tongues/languages - 1 Cor. 12:10, 12:28.


7.    Genus of sounds - 1 Cor. 14:10.


As we can see, there can be much variety within the Genus level of classification.  Understanding exactly what is the meaning of genos, as I've shown, gives us vital knowledge and understanding we need to discover and understand the meaning of the 9 usages of monogenēs in the new covenant texts. 


1.  In Luke 7:12 monogenēs is used to describe the woman's one and only ("only", KJV) son of maternal birth, of bloodline descent (usage 4 above).


2.  In Luke 8:42 monogenēs is used to describe Jairus' one and only ("one only", KJV) daughter of paternal birth, of bloodline descent (usage 4 above).


3.  In Luke 9:38 monogenēs is used to describe the man's one and only ("only child", KJV) son of paternal birth, of bloodline descent (usage 4 above).


4.  In John 1:14 monogenēs is used to describe God the heavenly Father's one and only ("of the only begotten", KJV) son of paternal birth, of spiritual descent (usage 5 above), AND of maternal birth and bloodline descent (Mat. 1:25; Rom. 1:3; Gal. 3;16), (usage 4 above).  Up until the day of Pentecost (Acts 2) Jesus Christ, the Word made flesh, was God's only paternally birthed son.  But since that day God the heavenly Father has given birth to many, many more sons (Rom. 8:29; John 3:5-6; Rom. 8:14-17; Rom. 9:8; 1 Pet. 1:23; 1 John 3:9).  Jesus can't be referred to as a firstborn of God unless there are more which are going to be paternally born of God, the heavenly Father (Heb. 12:23).


5.  In John 1:18 monogenēs is used again to describe God the heavenly Father's one and only ("the only begotten", KJV) son of paternal birth, of spiritual descent (usage 5 above).


6.  In John 3:16 monogenēs is used again to describe God the heavenly Father's one and only ("only begotten", KJV) son of paternal birth, of spiritual descent (usage 5 above).


7.  In John 3:18 monogenēs is used again to describe God the heavenly Father's one and only ("only begotten", KJV) son of paternal birth, of spiritual descent (usage 5 above).


8.  In Heb. 11:17 monogenēs is used to describe Abraham's one and only ("his only begotten", KJV) son of paternal birth, of bloodline descent (usage 4 above).


9.  In 1 John 4:9 monogenēs is used again to describe God the heavenly Father's one and only ("only genus", LIT) son of paternal birth, of spiritual descent (usage 5 above).


As we can see, 4 usages of monogenēs are used to describe various individual's paternal and maternal birth of their one and only child of bloodline descent.  Apostle John uses monogenēs 5 times to make the point that Jesus Christ, the Word which became flesh, had a beginning spiritually when God gave spiritual birth to him some time before the beginning of God's creation (Prov. 8), and then subsequently the Word became flesh through a physical, maternal and bloodline birth in the flesh through Mariam his fleshly mother, who was of the bloodline of David, of the tribe of Judah, of the bloodline of Abraham.  Although the Word had a beginning (John 1:1-2; Heb. 1:1-), and then a second beginning (Mat. 1:1-; ), it/he didn't become a paternal son of God through a paternal birth until he received a new birth above in God's gift of his paternal Spirit (1 Pet. 1:23), immediately after his water baptism by John the Baptist (Mat. 3:13-17).



3559 - mind-setting (nouthesia, noun) - Describes the act of helping a fellow believer set their mind right with the sound teaching of God's Word.  This is a reference to doctrine, reproof and correction, which is to be done in brotherly love and all humility and piety. Likewise as a clock is set to the correct time, we are to disciple ourselves to constantly keep setting our minds to God's Word. (See 1 Cor. 10:11; Eph. 6:4; Titus 3:10)



3618 - to build a domed-roof house (oikodomēō, verb) - See also 456 - I shall build up a domed-roof house.



3619 - a domed-roof house (oikodomē, noun) - See also 456 - I shall build up a domed-roof house.



3718 - cutting sharply straight (orthotomounta, verb) - An idiom used by apostle Paul in 2 Tim. 2:15, similar to our modern idiom, to get it straight, or to keep your story straight, meaning to tell or repeat something correctly, exactly as you heard it, not adding, changing, or deleting one thing from it.  Apostle Paul is telling Timothy to keep the Word of God, the Truth, straight, exactly as it is without changing it, in which case it would no longer be the Truth of God's Word, but a privately interpreted/opinionated/biased/... lie.  I believe that through identifying each and every subject matter within God's Word and discovering how they all relate to one another and fit together into the whole Word of God, that this is the process of cutting God's Word sharply straight. And then preserving and maintaining this form of wholesome teaching (Titus 1:9) in one's head is keeping it straight.  We must first cut it straight, and then we must keep it straight, so we can deliver it straight.



3756 - absolutely not (ou, particle) - An emphatic particle of absolute negation.  It is more emphatic than , another common particle of negation.  I always translate ou as absolutely not, and then use an exclamation point at the end of the sentence to communicate the emphatic meaning of ou along with its contextually intrinsic hint of emotion.



3823 - throw (palē, noun) - In Eph. 6:12 I believe apostle Paul refers to what is called in wrestling, a throw, a procedure or maneuver to throw (verb) an opponent to the floor or out of the ring, based upon the root of the word pallo, meaning to vibrate, which is another form for ballō, meaning throw.


"A wrestling, struggle or hand-to-hand combat. It was used of the wrestling of athletes and the of the hand-to-hand combat of soldiers both of which required deftness and speed. It denoted the struggle between individual combatants in distinction from an entire military campaign (strateía <G4752>)." - Baker, Warren; Carpenter, Eugene. The Complete Word Study Dictionary – New Testament. CD-ROM. AMG Publishers, 2003, WORDsearch Corp. 2007.


"from Homer down, wrestling (a contest between two in which each endeavors to throw the other, and which is decided when the victor is able θλιβειν και κατεχειν his prostrate antagonist, i.e. hold him down with his hand upon his neck; cf. Plato, legg. 7, p. 796; Aristotle, rhet. 1, 5, 14, p. 1361b, 24; Heliodorus aethiop. 10, 31; (cf. Krause, Gymn. u. Agon. d. Griech. i. 1, p. 400ff; Guhl and Koner, p. 219f; Dict. of Antiq. under the word lucta)); the term is transferred to the struggle of Christians with the powers of evil: Eph. 6:12." - Thayer, J. H. Thayer's Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament.  CD-ROM.  1885, WORDsearch Corp. 2014.



3831 - to an all-marketplace gathering (panēguris, noun) - This word is a compound of pas, meaning all, every, everyone, and agora, meaning a marketplace.  The reference in Heb. 12:22-24, to an all-marketplace gathering, can be defined by the contexts of Hebrews chapters 11-12, which gathering is a cloud of witnesses (Heb. 12:1) of all of those who have believed and who still are believing God's Word, of both earthly and heavenly beings, to receive the gracious things of him come to pass in their lives.  The agora part of panēguris refers to a marketplace where historically, and still today, people meet to buy and sell goods, discuss the social and political affairs of the day, and to do many other things.  Greek, Roman and Palestinian agoras served simultaneously as commercial, political and social centers.


In the Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary listed under Marketplace, the writers present a good description of the purposes and uses of a marketplace/agora in ancient Palestine. 


"Herod rebuilt many of the cities of Palestine following the Greek pattern that included open areas for public gathering (Gr. agora).  Amidst the shops children played (Matt. 11:16), day laborers gathered to be hired (Matt. 20:2-3), and Pharisees and other leading citizens wandered, exchanging greetings (Matt. 23:7; Luke 11:43).  Paul went to the marketplace (Gr. agora) on his visits to Greek cities to speak to the crowd always gathered there (Acts 17:17).  He and Silas were also tried by magistrates in the marketplace at Philippi, after angering the local merchants (Acts 16:19)."  "Marketplace." Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary. 2003.



The ruins of the agora at Philippi in the ancient Roman province of Macedonia.



3844 - alongside (para, prep., 3844) - Beside or alongside.  Spatially, para defines the relationship between two or more objects as being side by side, in very close proximity.  Throughout God's Word objects, ideas and concepts are compared side by side, or alongside to each other, to distinguish the differences in their inherent characters, motives and meanings.  Love is compared alongside to hate, good is compared alongside to evil, righteousness is compared alongside to unrighteousness, and so on.  Belief in God's Word which should be in our hearts, and subsequently what we think, say, and do, and the outcomes which we produce, are all compared to the standards given by God in his Word, which standards are his will.


Another important use of para by the biblical authors is in describing a believer's responsibility to choose sides, to either stand together (para) with God and his son Christ Jesus, for the sake of Truth and righteousness, or not, which alternative is to stand together (para) with the devil, lies, and unrighteousness.  In order for a believer to be eligible to partake in God's new covenant, put through by Jesus Christ's own shed blood, a believer must choose to stand together with the God, his son Christ Jesus, and for Truth and righteousness.  The default condition for a mortal who is born into this cosmos is that he or she is automatically ineligible to partake in God's new covenant, on account of being born into the fleshly sin nature of Adam passed down to all.  A mortal must deliberately choose to learn God's Word, then desire to understand it, then desire to believe it, especially the Evangelism of Jesus Christ, in order to stand himself or herself alongside of God and his son Jesus, to deliberately make themselves eligible to receive any of God's gracious things under his new covenant.


In Rom. 16:17 apostle Paul speaks of certain ones who were making dichotomies and scandals alongside of the teaching, of the evangelism of Christ Jesus, and alongside of the believers who were preaching and teaching it.  Causing division and scandal is one of the most popular methods, along with lying and killing of course (John 8:44), the devil uses to interrupt the Ministry of Reconciliation (2 Cor. 5:18-19), and to steal from, kill, and destroy (John 10:9-10) the believers who are doing the work of the ministry for our heavenly Father and his son Christ Jesus.  At the time the truth of God's Word is taught is exactly the time when the devil swings into action to introduce lies about God's Word and believers, to try and interrupt the knowledge of God's Word from getting to the ears of those who may believe it, and subsequently grow in their discipleship and spiritual maturity up into the fullness of the maturity of Christ (Eph. 4:13).  The devil's purpose is stop the truth of God's Word from being heard in order that he may stop believer's growth in their belief and discipleship to Christ Jesus. 


In Rom. 2:11 and Rom. 9:14 para is used to compare a relationship between God and the righteous things of him with unrighteousness and unrighteous things, which comparison concludes that they have no relationship at all, since God does not allow himself to "keep company" alongside of unrighteousness which may become alongside of him.  Another good example of God parting company with unrighteousness is given by apostle Paul in Rom. 11:7-24, speaking of the children of Israel who were "cut out" from being grafted into the offspring and root of Jesse (Isa. 11-12; Isa. 11:1, 10; Rom. 15:12), Christ Jesus.  God no longer allowed them to stand alongside of him on account of their unrighteousness, and so they were "cut out" from the root, Christ Jesus, and from being alongside of God.  Through repentance and belief the children of Israel, or anyone, can be grafted back in to the root (Rom. 11:23-24).


In Rom. 1:25 the impious and unrighteous mortals, v18, served the creation which was alongside of God, rather than God, the creator of it.  If you build a house, and you have a picture taken of you and the house you built, a picture of you both standing together side by side, in that picture which is more awesome and glorious, the house which was built, or the builder of that house, the one who conceived of it, planned it, laid down the schematics for it, and then built it with his own hand?  According to God's Word the builder is more awesome and glorious than the house he built.  But some looking at that picture, the impious and unrighteous mortals, v18, served the creation which God built, which was alongside of him, rather than God the creator/builder of all of the creation. 


In the beginning, the first created thing to which the God gave a "birth" (prōtotokos) into existence before the birth of any other created thing (Prov. 8:22; Col. 1:17), whose name was called the Word, caused itself to stand alongside of the God (Mat. 21:42; John 17:5-8).  It's name was the Word (John 1:1).  Some worship the Word instead of the God, the one who conceived and created the Word, planned it, laid down the schematics for it, and then built it with his own hand (2 Sam. 7:11-16; 2  Cor. 6:16-18; Heb. 8:2, 9:11)?  Please see my study, titled God's Desired True "Tent", His "Domed-roof House"!



3854 - causes himself to become alongside (paregenonto, verb) - An ancient way of saying someone came very near; but not just near, to become right beside something. When in the middle voice it means intentionally, and aggressively, out of one's own volition, will and desire also. 


In Mat. 2:1, the Magi traveled from the East, from the area now known as Iraq, to Jerusalem.  After their long journey they finally became alongside to Jerusalem, and then they entered into (eis) Jerusalem. 


In all of the usages of this verb throughout the new covenant writings it is important to notice the middle and passive voice usages, grammatical tools which the writer used to specifically point out the source of the instigation of the action of the verb to the reader.  Pointing out the source of the instigation of the action of the verb tells the reader whether the scriptural character was acting on his own initiative and volition, or acting in response to another's will.  This is very important when watching how and why Jesus Christ did all of the things he did, being sent by his Father, the God, to do his Father's will and not his own. 


The use of the middle voice is very telling when it shows Jesus acting on his own initiative and volition to do his Father's will.  Jesus Christ didn't simply react (passive voice) all of the time in his earthly ministry, but he often times aggressively acted (middle voice) to do those things pleasing in his heavenly Father's eyes, to reflect to mortalkind the love, grace, forgiveness, and righteousness of his heavenly Father.  In all of the records of the usages of these middle voiced verbs are great examples for us to follow, in our own discipleship to Christ Jesus, and sonship to our heavenly Father.  Middle and passive voice verbs indicate that as how the God worked with his son Jesus, that both the Father and his son Christ Jesus shall work with us also, in our discipleship to Christ Jesus, and in our sonship to our heavenly Father.


Special care should be taken by any reader of the holy scriptures, to take special notice of ALL the middle and passive voice verbs throughout all of God's Word.  Virtually all English translations ignore most all of the middle and passive voices of verbs, reflecting them into English as active voiced verbs, which in those occurrences in those translations obfuscates those passages, and thusly literally turns those passages into lies.  The LIT is the one and only translation which explicitly translates middle and passive voiced verbs into English in each and every occurrence, in order that the reader can easily identify and take note of their special usage by the ancient writers.


In Mat. 3:13, Matthew's usage of the middle/passive voice verb paraginetai, along with other contextual indicators,  indicate to us that Jesus was very excited about, and very much looking forward to, receiving a new birth above in his heavenly Father's gift of his holy Spirit, the promise of the Father, which Jesus received within moments of his water baptism by John.  The middle voice indicates Jesus' proactive, aggressive, self-instigated action to receive paternal sonship from the God, who became his heavenly Father that day on the bank of the Jordan river (Psalm 2:7; Mat. 3:13-17; John 1:32-34; Acts 13:33).  This baptism from above is required for anyone to become resurrected out of the grave in the future (Rom. 8:9-11); as was prophesied that Jesus greatly hoped the God would not let his flesh see a thorough disintegration while his dead body in the grave awaiting to be stood up after three days (Acts 2:22-33).


For the promise of the Father, of God himself placing himself into believers to live in them, see Joel 2:28-29; Mat. 3:11; Luke 24:49; John 3:1-, 7:37-39; Acts 1:4-5, 2:16-21, 33, 39, 20:28; Gal. 3:14, 22; Eph. 1:13-14, 3:6; 1 Thes. 5:9-11; 2 Thes. 2:13-14; Heb. 9:11-15, 10:36-39; 1 Pet. 2:4-9; 1 John 4:16b.

For son of me see also 2 Sam. 7:14; Psalm 2:7; Jer. 31:33; Ezek. 11:20; Mat. 3:16-17, 17:5; Mark 1:9-11, 9:7; Luke 3:21-22; Acts 13:33; Heb. 1:5, 5:5, 8:10; 2 Pet. 1:16-18; Rev. 21:3, 7.

In Luke 3:21-22 Luke records for us that at the time of his water baptism from John the baptist, Jesus was praying (lit. uttering toward God) for "the heaven to be opened up, and for the Spirit, the holy one, to come down upon him, and for a sound out of heaven to cause itself to come to pass", as Jesus read was prophesied about him (2 Sam. 7:14; Psalm 2:7), “You (su) are (ei) the (ho) son (huios) of me (mou), the (ho) beloved one (agapētos); in (en) you (soi) I well-approved (eudokēsa).”  Jesus was very much looking forward to becoming the first born son of the one true God.  All of the middle voice verbs throughout all of the new covenant writings related to what Jesus did in his earthly ministry abundantly indicate this.  This evidentially indicates that Jesus Christ was not the one true God, of which he became his son, but that the Word made flesh greatly desired to become the firstborn son of the one true God, Which Jesus became. 


Heb. 1:1-5 in the holy scriptures further substantiates and verifies that the Word which became flesh, Jesus Christ, was absolutely not the one true God, nor did he at any time become the one true God, which God became his heavenly Father.  But that the Word was a heavenly messenger in the beginning, in fact, the first one and the first thing God created, of all of his creation (Prov. 8; Col. 1:15-17); a messenger who volunteered to become the redeemer of the cosmos which he instrumentally helped the one true God create in the beginning.  This is how the Word which became flesh earned a name above all other names (Phil. 2:5-11), and how he became a son, the first one, of the one true God to receive his Father's, the God's, inheritance.



3859 - rubbing through alongside (diaparatribē, verb) - Same as 1304 "rubbing through", with the addition of the preposition para, meaning beside or alongside, suggesting very close personal social contact and communication with others.  In 1 Tim. 6:3-5 apostle Paul is giving Timothy some leadership advice, warning Timothy of blasphemers who may come blaspheming the name of the God through teaching something of another kind than the words the Lord Jesus Christ has taught.  Paul warned Timothy of anyone who has become a "cloud of smoke", suggesting they teach lies resulting in confusion, because they haven't been able to put together not one thing, i.e., connect the dots of the things in God's Word so that it all comes together and fits together for them.  Paul warned Timothy about those who have become mentally sick over their love for debate and word wars, which produce nothing other than envy, rivalries, blasphemies and suspicions; Paul warned Timothy about ones like these who go about rubbing through alongside others, establishing close contact and communication with others in order to speak their own blasphemies to them, defrauding others of the Truth, thusly thoroughly spoiling the minds of others as they have thoroughly spoiled their own minds.  This Eastern idiomatic idea of "rubbing through" is very similar to our Western English idiom of "rubbing elbows with" or "rubbing shoulders with" which describe mixing and socializing with others. 



3860 - to pass along or pass aside (paradidōmi, verb) - paradidōmi is used two ways:

- "to pass along" as in to hand-off or hand-down something valuable into the hands of a colleague;

- "to pass aside" as in to divert something from its normal path into a different path for it to come to a different end than what is or was expected.


In Rom. 1:24, 26, 28 God passed them aside (the impious and unrighteous mortals, v18) because he couldn't work with them.  God passed them aside and quit trying to work with them because they refused to cooperate.  The reasons why he passed them aside are given in the verses.  After God passed them aside for reasons such as are given in Rom. 1 they are no longer under his hand of protection, and thereby vulnerable to the devil and demon spirits to lose even their mortal lives (John 10:9).  In Mat. 26:23, Jesus said “The one having dipped in the hand in to the bowl with me, this one shall pass me aside".



3879 - to bend alongside to look (parakuptō, verb) - On the first day of the sabbath days Mariam, the Magdalene, and the other Mariam are the first ones to come to the memorial in which Jesus' body was laid (John 21:1; Mat. 28:1).  And they feel a great earthquake as a heavenly messenger comes down out of heaven and rolls away the huge stone over the entrance to the memorial (Mat. 28:2).  She looks at the stone having been lifted out of the memorial.  Then she runs toward Simon Peter, and the other disciple whom Jesus loved, to tell them what she has seen (John 20:2). 


Simon Peter and the other disciple run to the memorial, but the other disciple gets to the memorial first.  Having bent alongside to look the other disciple looks in to the memorial and sees the linen strips lying,  but he absolutely did not enter in (John 20:5).  Then Simon Peter arrives.  The record in Luke says that after Peter arrived to the memorial he bent alongside also to look in, and he sees the linen strips alone (Luke 24:12).  In John's record Peter then enters in and again sees the linen strips lying.  And then he sees that the sweat cloth which was upon the head of Jesus was absolutely not lying with the linen strips, but apart, having been rolled in into one place (John 20:6-7). 


For centuries the children of Israel have stood at the wailing wall rolling and folding up little papers, containing their written prayers, into small sizes so they could insert them into the little cracks, gaps and holes in the wall, a remaining part of the supposed house of God, which was to be a house of prayer (Mat. 21:13; Mark 11:17; Luke 19:46).  I believe the text's mention of Jesus' sweat band is symbolic of that part of all of Jesus' very hard work in his flesh to bring about the new covenant of his heavenly Father through Jesus' own shed blood and death.  Jesus rolling up his sweat band and placing it in a separate place is symbolic, and it memorializes all of his prayers to his heavenly Father to help him go through all he needed to go through to bring into reality the new covenant and with it promised wholeness for all of mortalkind; which answers to his prayers our heavenly Father now magnificently and wonderfully demonstrates through standing up his son, Jesus Christ, out of dead ones!  


In apostle John's record, after Simon Peter and the other disciple went away from the memorial one of the two Mariams stayed by the memorial, standing outside crying.  Then she bent alongside to look into the memorial and she observes two heavenly messengers in white sitting within, one sitting at the head and another at the feet of where Jesus' body was laid.


So on account of these records of Simon Peter, the other disciple who Jesus loved, and one of the Mariams, all bending alongside to look into the memorial where Jesus' body was laid, and confronting the colossal and  dramatic truth that the heavenly Father had actually stood his son Jesus up out of dead ones, as was prophesied, this draws our attention to think deeply into exactly what now is the fullness of the meaning of it, that the God stood up his son Jesus out of the grave and dead ones?  What should we be staring at as we imagine ourselves looking into an empty memorial where Jesus body once lay, but which now is empty!?  What do we "see", and what does the empty memorial mean to us?


In 1 Pet. 1 apostle Peter tells us that heavenly messengers lusted over to bend alongside to look into the meaning and understanding of the prophesied wholeness of the souls of mortalkind (v 12), about which the prophets sought out and searched out about the grace of the God having been prophesied into us. The heavenly host as well as the prophets closely examined these ancient Hebrew prophecies of the wholeness of mortalkind to try and determine when in the future these things were going to come to pass (vs 10-12).  In the ancient Hebrew texts there were given little bits and pieces of prophecy about a coming new covenant of some kind, and about the God placing his Spirit in mortalkind (Jer. 31:31-34; Ezek. 11:16-20; Joel 2:28-32; and many more).  But there was not enough prophetic information given about a new covenant to enable anyone to put together a comprehensive enough explanation of their collective meanings, to begin to understand what they meant for the future of mortalkind. 


The completion of our belief and the wholeness of our souls was prophesied by the Spirit of Christ as well (1 Pet. 1:11), in the ancient Hebrew texts of the law, of the psalms, and of the prophets (v11).  Those who cared enough to study God's Word enough to notice those prophesies searched out those holy scriptures to try to discover into what, or which time, was being made obvious for the Spirit of Christ to be in mortalkind.  In those ancient writings the Spirit of Christ witnessed before of the sufferings into Christ, and with the coming to pass of those sufferings, the glorious things to follow (v 11).  The following are only a few of the many ancient prophesies witnessed to us by the Spirit of Christ, before it/he became manifested in the flesh: Ps. 2:7-9; Ps. 16:8-11; Ps. 22; Ps. 30:1-5; Ps. 69; Ps. 78:2; Prov. 8; Isa. 49:1-6; Isa. 50:4-51:3; Isa. 61:1-7


In James 1:25 James used the same verb for any believer having bent alongside to look into a complete law, a law of freedom, which is the Law of Belief (Rom. 3:23-28; Gal. 5:1-6).  The bondage and slavery from which James implies we've been set free is the bondage to sin and death, which strength of it was the Mosaic law, a Law of works, which works constantly had to be done (Rom. 6:16-19; 7:9-11).  The penalty for not keeping all of that law was death (Rom. 6:23).  Through the passing away of the old Law of Works for the new Law of Belief, death is no longer a lord over us (Rom. 6:9).  The yoke of that old law has been removed through Jesus' shed blood, and on account of it now the penalty for our sin has been let go to us, the penalty has been forgiven.  This is the bull's-eye of the revelation of the meaning of the new covenant all mortals can have with our heavenly Father, who believe upon the name of Jesus Christ and his shed blood, which shed blood completely washes away the penalty for our sin, and has replaced it with the everlasting love and grace of God, our heavenly Father. 



3880 - take alongside (paralambanō, verb) - Used in a variety of ways of receiving someone or something. 


In Mat. 1:20, the first usage of the word, it is used of Joseph accepting Mariam to be with him as his wife.  In all of its usages it implies cooperation between the one giving, and/or the thing given, and the one receiving, i.e. taking. 


In Mat. 2:12 it is used of Joseph taking special care of the young child and Mariam to keep them close to him as he escorts them to safety. 


In Mat. 4:5 it is used of the devil taking Jesus into the holy city to try him. 


In 1 Cor. 11:23 it is used also of taking and/or receiving something subjectively from another, knowledge and understanding from Jesus Christ.



3884 - to reckoning beside (paralogizomai, verb) - Used in James 1:22, "... reckoning beside yourselves."  An idiom very similar to our English idiom we use when we say someone is beside himself, as being in a state of agitation or excitement, even to the extent of not thinking clearly.  James usage is in the sense of one not thinking clearly, where one's decision, determination or logical conclusion is in error.



3894 - bitterness alongside (parapikrasmos, noun) - In Heb. 3:15, in the record in that chapter, it is written that the children of Israel became bitter alongside of the God, during their exodus out of the slavery and bondage of Egypt.  Because of their own unbelief the children of Israel became bitter toward God while wandering through the wilderness, as God tried to help them believe in him and help them come in to the land of Canaan, the promised land flowing with milk and honey.  The children of Israel were so bitchy, that God could hardly stand them.  Their bitterness toward God was the result of their own unbelief toward him.  They chose to blame God for their 40-year long wandering in the wilderness rather than take accountability for their own unbelief in him, ignoring all the signs and miracles he did before their eyes.  I have no doubt that the devil was trying to influence them negatively every step of their way.  The ground opened up and swallowed some of the children of Israel who allowed their minds to get too far out into unbelief, doubt, worry and fear, i.e., to become demon-possessed (Deut. 11:6; Psalm 106:17).



3900 - side-falls (paraptōma, common noun) - What we think is what we say and do.  Therefore controlling our thinking to stay focused upon the standards of God's Word is the heart of our discipleship to Christ Jesus.  Where we "walk" in our minds, our domed-roof houses, is where we'll walk in the flesh.  In the thoughts of our minds, when we wander off or away from the way of the truth of God's Word, we stumble in our discipleship, and we fall off the side of the path (John 11:9-10; 2 Pet. 2:20-22).  When this happens we must get back to taking control of the thoughts of our minds (2 Cor. 10:5; 1 Pet. 1:13), we must get back to attentively hearing God's Word (1 Pet. 1:14), and thereby get back on the path, the way of holiness and righteousness (John 14:6), and get back to walking in the light (Rom. 6:4, 8:4; Gal. 5:16, 25; Eph. 4:1, 5:15).


The general pervasive idea of the desired mind set of a disciple of Christ Jesus, as portrayed throughout God's Word, is to keep one's footsteps, i.e. thoughts, placed accurately along the trusted path of righteousness, i.e. the truth of God's Word, in one's own personal behavior (Mark 7:5).  In God's Word "miss-steps" of thoughts, words and actions, off to either side of the way, the truth, and the life, are referred to as wandering (planaō, Strong's #4105), which results in personal calamity, which is called a side-fall


A virtually exact English idiom equivalent, which may have descended from this ancient Middle Eastern idiom, is a downfall, which is said to have happened to someone who has made a miss-step or mistake in their personal behavior.   Whether a side-fall or a downfall, either is considered a departure from a previous higher level of respect and/or honor, to a lower level of respect and/or honor.  An associated English idiom, used to describe what has happened to one who has arrived at a level of respect and/or honor which is so low that it is considered as far down as it may be possible to fall, is they have hit bottom


In Mat. 6:14 Jesus advises that it is best to forgive others of their side-falls against us before we go to the Father with an offering of praise and thanksgiving and a prayer of need, in order that he may forgive our side-falls and his grace may be granted toward us.  In my opinion, in virtually all the records where Jesus did healings, and then said for them to "Rise up and walk", he referred to more than simply walking physically, but to their personal behavior going forward, to "walk" in their minds on the path of righteousness, to subsequently not habitually sin in their personal walk of behavior, which mental discipline shall reduce future side-falls.



3925 - para-insertions (parembolē, noun) - A military term used by Paul? in Heb. 11:34 to refer to invading forces from another kingdom or land.  The children of Israel considered the Roman forces to be para-insertions.  Luke uses the term to refer to the headquarters, barracks, camp, etc. of the invading forces (Acts 21:37, 22:24, 23:10, 16, 32).



3936 - to stand yourself alongside of God (paristēmi, verb) - A metaphor for choosing sides.  It means to be pledged to, or to pledge one's self to the God.  It means to choose to give one's allegiance and obedience to the God, our heavenly Father, to be a slave for him in doing good works for others, out of love for him; in subordination to all as they being superiors. 


This discrete subject/topic in God's Word is about discipleship, and part of the foundational teaching of how to be a disciple to Christ Jesus and a slave for him, and especially for the God, our heavenly Father.


As used in the holy scriptures of the Bible, it means to consciously choose, moment by moment, to be on the side of the one true God, and to do his righteousness, rather than on the side of unrighteousness. It's up to us to choose for ourselves, moment by moment, in any and every one of life's situations, to whom we shall stand ourselves alongside.


For a believer's responsibility to stand himself alongside of the Father through doing good works, in order to receive anything from him, see Mat. 6:1-4, 18:19, 19:26, 21:42; Mark 10:27, 12:11; Luke 1:30, 37, 2:22, 52; John 5:44, 6:45-46, 8:38-42, 9:16, 33, 17:5-8; Acts 1:3; Rom. 2:11-13, *6:13, *12:1; 1 Cor. 7:24, 8:8a; 2 Cor. 9:8; Gal. 3:11; *Eph. 6:8; 1 Tim. 2:10; 2 Tim. 3:14-17; *Tit. 2:14, 3:8,14; Heb. 10:24; *James 1:5-7, 27; *1 Pet. 2:20-21; 2 Pet. 3:8; *2 John 1:3; Rev. 2:28.


In apostle Paul's letters he instructs believers how to grow in their discipleship to Christ, and grow in their sonship to their heavenly Father:


Rom. 6:13 (LIT/UBS4) But do not stand alongside3936 (mēde paristanete) to the (tō) sin (hamartia) the (ta) members (melē) of you (humōn) [as if, RE] weapons (hopla) of unrighteousness (adikias).


BUT (alla), stand yourselves alongside3936 (parastēsate heautous) to the (tō) God (theō) as if (hōsei) living (zōntas) out (ek) of dead ones (nekrōn), and (kai) the (ta) members (melē) of you (humōn) [as if, RE] weapons (hopla) of righteousness (dikaiosunēs) for the (tō) God (theō)!


"Members of you [as if, RE] weapons of righteousness" - A metaphor for using our own hands to do things in God's sight which are pleasing to him; for doing good works toward God and our fellow mortals, demonstrating God's love and grace to others as he shows toward us. 


In Rom. 6:16-23 apostle Paul says also:


Rom. 6:16 (LIT/UBS4) Have you absolutely not seen (ouk oidate) that (hoti) to whom (hō) you stand yourselves alongside (paristanete heautous) [as if, v13, RE] slaves (doulous) into (eis) attentive hearing (hupakoēn), you are (este) slaves (douloi) to whom (hō) you obey (hupakouete);


whether (ētoi) [slaves, RE] of sin (harmartias) into (eis) death (thanaton), or (ē) [slaves, RE] of attentive hearing (hupakoēs) into (eis) righteousness (dikaiosunēn)!?


Rom. 6:17 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) grace (charis) [be] to the (tō) God (theō);


because (hoti) you were being (etē) slaves (douloi) of the (tēs) sin (hamartias), but (de) you obeyed (hupēkousate) out (ek) of heart (kardias) into (eis) [being] [an] imprint5179 (tupon) of [the] orthodoxy (didachēs) which (hon) was passed along (paredothēte).


Rom. 6:18 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) you having been made free (eleutherōthentes) from (apo) the (tēs) sin (hamartias), you were made slaves (edoulōthēte) to the (tē) righteousness (dikaiosunē).


Rom. 6:19 (LIT/UBS4) I speak (legō) mortally (anthrōpinon), through (dia) [the sake, AE] of the (tēn) disability (astheneian) of the (tēs) flesh (sarkos) of you (humōn).  


Because (gar) so be it as (hōsper) you stood alongside (parestēsate) the (ta) members (melē) of you (humōn) [as] slaves (doula) to the (tē) uncleanliness (akatharsia) and (kai) to the (tē) lawlessness (anomia), into (eis) the (tēn) lawlessness (anomian), thusly (houtōs) now (nun) stand alongside (parastēsate) the (ta) members (melē) of you (humōn) [as if, v13, RE] slaves (doula) to the (tē) righteousness (dikaiosunē), into (eis) holiness (hagiasmon).


Rom. 6:20 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) when (hote) you were being (ēte) slaves (douloi) of the (tēs) sin (hamartias), you were being (ēte) ones free (eleutheroi) [to stand alongside the members of you, v19, RE] to the (tē) righteousness (dikaiosunē).


Rom. 6:21 (LIT/UBS4) Therefore (oun), what (tina) produce (karpon) were you holding (eichete) then (tote), over (eph’) which things (hois) now (nun) you are caused to be ashamed (epaischunesthe)?  


Because (gar) the (to) completion (telos) of those things (ekeinōn) [is] death (thanatos)!


Rom. 6:22 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) now, at this moment (nuni), you having been made free (eleutherōthentes) from (apo) the (tēs) sin (hamartias), but (de) you having been made slaves (doulōthentes) to the (tō) God (theō), hold (echete) the (ton) holiness (hagiasmon) of you (humōn) into (eis) [making] produce (karpon);


but (de) the (to) completion (telos) [of holiness is] ageless (aiōnion) life (zōēn)!


Rom. 6:23 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) the (ta) rations (opsōnia) of the (tēs) sin (hamartias) [is] death (thanatos).


But (de) the (to) gracious gift (charisma) of the (tou) God (theou) [is] ageless (aiōnios) life (zōe) in (en) Christ (Christō) Jesus (Iēsou), the (tō) lord (kuriō) of us (hēmōn).


In Rom. 12:1 apostle Paul says also:


Rom. 12:1 (LIT/UBS4) Therefore (oun), I accost (parakalō) you (humas), brothers (adelphoi), through (dia) the (tōn) compassions (oiktirmōn) of the (tou) God (theou), to stand alongside3936 (parastēsai) the (ta) bodies (sōmata) of you (humōn) [to the God, RE] [being] [a] living (zōsan) sacrifice (thusian), [a] holy (hagian) [sacrifice, RE], well agreeable (euareston) to the (to) God (theou), [which is, AE] the (tēn) logical (logikēn) service (latreian) of you (humōn).


In 2 Cor. 11:2 apostle Paul says also:


2 Cor. 11:2 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) I am jealous (zēlō) of you (humas) [with, AE] [a] jealousy (zēlō) of God (theou);


because (gar) I caused myself to join (hērmosamēn) you (humas), [an] innocent (hagnēn) virgin (parthenon), to one (heni) male (andri), to stand alongside3936 (parastēsai) to the (tō) Christ (Christō).


2 Cor. 11:3 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) I am made fearful (phoboumai), [if] not (mē) somehow (pōs), as (hōs) the (ho) serpent (ophis) faked out (exēpatēsen) Eve (Ehuan) in (en) the (tē) shrewdness (panourgia) of it (autou), the (ta) perceptions (noēmata) of you (humōn) may be corrupted (phtharē) from (apo) the (tēs) singleness of purpose (haplotētos) and (kai) the (tēs) purity (hagnotētos), the (tēs) [singleness of purpose and purity, RE] in (eis) the (ton) Christ (Christon)!


As we can see, we are to stand ourselves alongside of Christ as well, as his disciples.  We are to stand ourselves alongside to God, our heavenly Father, as obedient children of him.  But we are to stand ourselves alongside to the Christ as obedient disciples of him, as our immediate Lord and teacher, who we are to follow after and imitate, since he is the reflection off of, and a characterization of (Heb. 1:3), and the icon of the God (Col. 1:15), our heavenly Father.


In 2 Tim. 2:15-19 apostle Paul says also:


2 Tim. 2:15 (LIT/UBS4) Make haste (spoudason) to stand yourself alongside3936 (parastēsai seauton) to the (tō) God (theō), approved (dokimon), [a] worker (ergatēn) unashamed (anepaischunton), cutting sharply straight3718 (orthotomounta) the (ton) Word (logon) of the (tēs) Truth (alētheias).


2 Tim. 2:16 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) of the (tas) empty sounds (kenophōnias) [being] over the threshold (bebēlous), do [not, v14, RE] cause yourself to stand around (periistaso) [hearing, v14, RE] [them, AE].


Because (gar) they shall beat forward4298 (prokopsousin) over (epi) [the sake, AE] of more (pleion) ungodliness (asebeias).


2 Tim. 2:17 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) the (ho) word (logos) of them (autōn), as (hōs) gangrene (gangraina), it shall have (hexei) [a] pasturing (nomēn), of whom (hōn) is (estin) Hymenaeus (Humenaios) and (kai) Philetus (Philētos);


2 Tim. 2:18 (LIT/UBS4) some who (hoitines), about (peri) the (tēn) Truth (alētheian), aimed incorrectly (ēstochēsan), saying (legontes), “the (tēn) standing up (anastasin) [out of dead ones, AE] to have come to pass (gegonenai) already (ēdē),” and (kai) they upturn (anatrepousin) the (tēn) belief (pistin) of some (tinōn).


2 Tim. 2:19 (LIT/UBS4) Yet truly (mentoi), the (ho) solid (stereos) foundation (themeliōs) of the (tou) God (theou) has stood (hestēken), having (echōn) the (tēn) seal (sphragida) of this (tautēn):


[The] lord (kurios) knew (egnō) the ones (tous) being (ontas) of him (autou).


And (kai) everyone (pas), the one (ho) naming (onomazōn) the (to) name (onoma) of [the] lord (kuriou), depart away (apostētō) from (apo) unrighteousness (adikia).



3941 - side-housers (paroikos, adj.) - See 3320 - middle wall first.  Ones who are dwelling in a foreign land, a land outside of their original home land.  Within the court of the gentiles in the temple area, backed up to the backside of the huge main temple area wall, were little "porches", areas underneath a roof which was held up by pillars.  These areas were immediately adjacent to the court of the Gentiles, and was used by them primarily to meet, socialize and worship.  In the old covenant writings the temple was known as beth Yahweh or beth Elohim, "house of the Yahweh" or "house of God".  The temple was known as the House of God.  Thusly, those Gentiles who met in the Court of the Gentiles, off to the sides in the little porches, were known as side-housers


In Acts Stephen uses the term twice, while explaining to the council and false witnesses against him, why the word which he speaks is not blasphemy.  He uses the term for Abraham's seed which would become a side-houser in another's land (Acts 7:6), and again for Moses, who fleeing Egypt became a side-houser in the land of Madian (Acts 7:29).  In my opinion, the allusion is the same for Abraham and Moses, that they, as side-housers, perhaps may not have had all the same rights and privileges in foreign lands as natural citizens, like the Gentiles who did not have all the same rights and privileges in the temple as did the children of Israel.  Apostle Paul uses the term in Eph. 2:19, rendered "foreigners" in the KJV.  Apostle Peter uses the term in 1 Pet. 2:11, rendered "strangers" in the KJV. 



3975 - was made thick (pachunō, verb) - In Mat. 13:15 Jesus, while preaching to crowds on the shoreline, refers to a prophecy of Isaiah (Isa. 6:9-10.  See John 12:40, Acts 28:26-27 also) about a people whose collective heart "was made thick".  I take this to be a figure of speech similar to our modern one in which we refer to a person's head as being thick, i.e. a thick-headed person, one who has difficulty thinking and comprehending.  In Jesus' parable, the ones who are thick-hearted can't "hear" or "see" God's Word.  Even though they may hear the sound of words being spoken, and/or they may see signs, miracles and wonders being done, they can't comprehend their meanings and subsequently put them together in their minds to understand their spiritual concepts and truths.



4016 - to throw around (periballō, verb) - An idiom meaning to throw a wrap around yourself.  Equivalent English idioms are, to throw on a pair of jeans, or, to throw together something.  In Mat. 6 Jesus teaches us not to be distracted from spiritual understanding through physical needs, and not to become "actors" through becoming distracted with considering what to wear (v31). 


As we all know very well, human nature around the world is all about presenting outward appearances to please one's self and/or others, to persuade, to convince, to portray, to impress, to bamboozle, and/or sell others into believing this or that which could be more advantageous to us.  Striving to "look one's best" externally is a huge part of our 'showbiz' culture, and arguably one of the most important tools we use to get what we want.  Our children, from the time they enter school, seem to be steeped in the notion of "looking the part", as though wearing the "correct" or socially acceptable attire shall equip them to become better actors on the stage of life, thusly earning them more and better social rewards for their acting ability. 


Jesus' disciples were not to be overly concerned about making fashion statements and outward showbiz appearances as the Judean religious leaders, the "actors" did (Mat. 6:1, 5, 16), but they were to keep their minds undistracted from worldly distractions so they could stay better attuned to the knowledge and understanding of God's Word, and walk by the Spirit's guidance.  In this way their behavior would be more acceptable and pleasing to their heavenly Father, who looks not upon one's outward appearance, but upon one's inward condition of the heart, as to whether it has belief in God's Word in it. 



4018 - a wrap (peribolaion, noun) - An article of clothing of some kind which is thrown around one's self to keep one clean and/or dry, and/or warm.  See 1 Cor. 11:15 and Heb. 1:12.



4021 - work-arounders (periergos, adj.) - In 1 Tim. 5:13 apostle Paul is giving Timothy leadership advice about the social disorder of some whose discipleship to Jesus Christ has not yet matured; ones who take up idle practices, going around from house to house of believers discovering other's personal business, and then without their specific approval babbling about that information to other's.  Paul refers to them as work-arounders.  They don't care about other's right to privacy, and work around other's reluctance to make public their own "laundry", by babbling it about for them without their permission, without concern for other's privacy and lives.



4064 - ones being brought about (peripherō, verb) - In Eph. 4:14 apostle Paul uses several characterizations to describe mortals struggling to find and believe God's Word, and to stay on course with their discipleship and spiritual growth.  Two of those characterizations are related to seafaring, ones surging, and ones being brought about to every wind.  These two phrases describe both vertical and horizontal motion respectively of a ship on the sea.  A ship on the sea can be brought about to a new course and heading through positioning the rudder, and positioning the sails to control the force of wind pushing upon the ship. 


Paul's reference is to the wind is metaphorical also, which represents the false logic and lies of false teachers under demonic spiritual influence, attributed to the reference to the Wanderer, a title of the devil.  A ship in this case is a metaphor for any mortal being being accosted by the wind.  The sea is a metaphor for the life through which we walk.  The rudder of the ship is a metaphor to our own judgment, which is based upon our knowledge and understanding of God's Word which builds strong belief in a mortal's heart, strength steer a good course in life, a course of love and good works acceptable to God.  Winds of lies can affect the beliefs within a mortal's heart, and thereby affect the course and heading a mortal sets for himself.  A heading one sets for himself which is based upon truth, God's Word (John 17:17), will cause a mortal to steer their ship in the right direction toward a safe harbor, to pick up a load of abundance of life, prosperity and peace, into fellowship with God the heavenly Father and his son Jesus Christ.    



4078 - pegged (pēgnumi, verb) - This word means to drive pins, pegs, or stakes into the ground, which is commonly done to set up a tent.  The following is an excerpt from chapter 2 of my work titled God's Prophetic Holy Place ("Tent"), a "Domed-roof House".


In Heb. 8:2 the writer of Hebrews (apostle Paul?) uses the word "tent" (Gk. skēnēs) in reference to a tabernacle, a temple, a holy place of some kind in which the God was supposed to dwell, according to Judeo-Christian oral tradition.  But the writer refers to the true "tent" of the Lord God, the one which is "pegged" into place by the Lord, the God himself, and absolutely not by a mortal.  The writer uses the emphatic particle of negation, ouk, to dramatically slam this very important truth into the reader's minds that the true "tent" of the God, not the tabernacle (lit., tent of meeting) in the wilderness in the exodus (Exod. 33:7-11), not Solomon's, Zerubbabel's, or Herod's temples which were in Jerusalem, or any other 'house of Yehweh" or "house of Elohim" mentioned in the holy scriptures, was ever the true "tent" of the Lord God, because they were all made, built, set up, put in place, with the hands of mortals.


In Acts 2:23 the lawless ones of the children of Israel, Jesus referred to them as their father being the devil (John 8:44), through their skillful use of the Roman occupation to do their dirty work for them, they literally pegged (Gk. prospēxantes) Jesus Christ to the stake/peg (Gk. stauros) upon which his blood was poured out and he died, which stake was stuck/pegged into the ground.  The same staking/pegging of Jesus Christ which killed him, through which he sacrificed his blood for us, was the same staking/pegging which the Lord God used to give those who believe upon Jesus' name, life, and to raise up his own true "tent' in which he truly NOW homes-down (Gk. katoikei)!  because when he raised up Jesus out of the dead ones he raised us up with him, with the one who is the firstborn one out of the dead ones (Col. 1:18; Rev. 1:5; Rom. 8:11; 1 Cor. 6:14; 2 Cor. 4:14; Eph. 2:6). 


I believe the literal act of "pegging" which the Lord God does is his act of giving his gift of holy Spirit, which he gave to Jesus Christ very shortly after his water baptism through John, the baptist.  He giving his gift of holy Spirit is how he builds his "tent" with his own "hands".  And now, the ascended and glorified Christ Jesus acting on his Father's behalf as his agent, as a "hand" of God so to speak, he pours out his Father's gift of holy Spirit, baptizing those in it who believe upon Jesus' name (Mat. 3:11).


Here's a brief outline of the prophetic holy scriptures, of how some of the OT and NT writings should be put together to clearly show exactly WHAT and WHERE is the "tent" which the Lord God "pegged" for himself, the one in which he foretold he desired to dwell, the one which he made with his own "hands", in which he NOW homes down:


In the record in Exod. 15:1-21, in the words of the song Moses and the children of Israel sang to thank God for his deliverance of them through the Red sea, are the prophetic words describing God's future plan for the children of Israel:


Exod. 15:17 (YLT) Thou dost bring them in, And dost plant them In a mountain of Thine inheritance, A fixed place for Thy dwelling Thou hast made, O Jehovah; A sanctuary, O Lord, Thy hands have established;

Isa. 66:1 (YLT) Thus said Jehovah: The heavens are My throne, And the earth My footstool, Where is this—the house that ye build for Me? And where is this—the place—My rest?

Isa. 66:2 (YLT) And all these My hand hath made, And all these things are, An affirmation of Jehovah! And unto this one I look attentively, Unto the humble and bruised in spirit, And who is trembling at My word.

Disciple Stephen witnesses this magnificent truth which Isaiah spoke, witnessing about "the advent of the righteous one", it being a part of the evangelism of Jesus Christ (Acts 7:52), the word of reconciliation (2 Cor. 5:18-19) which Jesus Christ and the apostles and disciples both preached and taught.


Acts 7:47 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) Solomon (Solomōn) built [a] domed-roof house3618 (ōkodomēsen), [a] house (oikon) for him (autō).


Acts 7:48 (LIT/UBS4) BUT (all’), the (ho) highest one (hupsistos) absolutely does not home down (ouch katoikei) in (en) hands-made places (cheiropoiētois)!


Down according to as (kathōs) the (ho) prophet (prophētēs) says (legei),


Acts 7:49 (LIT/UBS4) ‘The (ho) heaven (ouranos) [is] for me (moi) [a] throne (thronos)


But (de) the (hē) land (gē) [is] [a] footstool under (hupopodion) of the (tōn) feet (podōn) of me (mou)


Which (poion) house (oikon)?


Shall you build domed-roof houses3618 (oikodomēsete) for me (moi)?’ says (legei) [the] Lord (kurios YHWH)


Or (ē), ‘What (tis) [is] [a] place (topos) of the (tēs) pause (katapauseōs) of me (mou)?


Acts 7:50 (LIT/UBS4) Did absolutely not (ouchi) the (hē) hand (cheir) of me (mou) make (epoiēsen) all (panta) these things (tauta)?’


Apostle Paul witnesses the same magnificent truth, that the Lord God absolutely does not, and has absolutely not ever, dwelled in tabernacles or temples of any kind, made with mortal's hands.  He has used them only to meet with his people.  That's all!


Acts 17:24 (LIT/UBS4) The (ho) God (theos), the one (ho) having made (poiēsas) the (ton) cosmos (kosmon), and (kai) all (panta) the things (ta) in (en) it (autō) being under control (huparchōn) to this one (houtos), [the] Lord (kurios) of heaven (ouranou) and (kai) of land (gēs), he absolutely does not home-down (ouk katoikei) in (en) hands-made (cheiropoiētois) holy places (naois)!


Jesus Christ preached and taught how he was going to raise up the true "tent" of the Lord God, which is also referred to prophetically as the "tent of David", through his own self-sacrifice, the shedding of his own blood.


John 2:18 (LIT/UBS4) Therefore (oun), the (hoi) Judeans (Ioudaioi) were caused to make [a] decision (apekrithēsan), and (kai) they enunciated (eipan) to him (autō), “What (ti) sign (sēmeion) do you thoroughly show (deiknueis) to us (hēmin) that (hoti) you do (poieis) these things (tauta)?”


John 2:19 (LIT/UBS4) Jesus (Iēsous) was caused to make [a] decision (apekrithē), and (kai) he enunciated (eipen) to them (autois), “Undo (lusate) the (ton) holy place (naon) of this (touton), and (kai) in (en) three (trisin) days (hēmerais) I shall awake (egerō) it (auton)!”


(See Ex. 15:17; Lev. 26:11-12; 2 Sam. 7:5-7, 11-16; Isa. 8:14; Ezek. 11:16; John 2:19-21; 1 Cor. 3:16-17, 6:19; Eph. 2:21)


John 2:20 (LIT/UBS4) Therefore (oun), the (hoi) Judeans (Ioudaioi) enunciated (eipan), “The (ho) holy place (naos), this one (houtos), was built [a] domed-roof house3618 (oikodomēthē) [in] forty (tesserakonta) and (kai) six (hex) years (etesin), and (kai) you (su) shall arouse (egereis) it (auton) in (en) three (trisin) days (hēmerais)?”


John 2:21 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) that one (ekeinos) was speaking (elegen) about (peri) the (tou) holy place (naou) of the (tou) body (sōmatos) of him (autou).


John 2:22 (LIT/UBS4) Therefore (oun), when (hote) he was awoken (ēgerthē) out (ek) of dead ones (nekrōn) the (hoi) disciples (mathētai) of him (autou) were reminded (emnēsthēsan) that (hoti) he was saying (elegen) this (touto).  


And (kai) they believed (episteusan) the (tē) writing (graphē), and (kai) the (tō) Word (logō) which (hon) the (ho) Jesus (Iēsous) enunciated (eipen).


When Christ Jesus was present the first time, during his presence in which he shed his blood, he literally was the heir to the thrown of David, being a son of David, his "father" in the flesh (Luke 1:32; John 7:42; Rom. 1:3; 2 Tim. 2:8; Rev. 5:5, 22:16).  At that time and thereafter he is and still is the king of the Judeans, and he has been the high sacrificial priest of all of those who have believed, and who shall believe upon his name (Heb. 8:1-2). 


Additional facts and truth from the holy scriptures tell us that the Lord God's "tent" is going to be the very same one as the "tent of David" which has "fallen down", which falling down came to pass when the heir to the throne of David, Jesus Christ, was murdered.  See my study, Jesus' Genealogy published at my website.  The beginning of the setting up of the "tent" of the Lord God, the "tent of David", began with the pegging/staking of Jesus Christ.  The actual raising up of the "tent of David" occurred WHEN the God raised Jesus up out of dead ones!  And the facts and truth of the holy scriptures tell us that the Lord God's "tent" is still being built, one believer at a time, each time a believer believes upon the name of Jesus and receives a baptism above in God's gift of holy Spirit from and through Christ Jesus!


Amos 9:11 (YLT) In that day I raise the tabernacle of David, that is fallen, And I have repaired their breaches, And its ruins I do raise up, And I have built it up as in days of old.


Amos 9:12 (YLT) So that they possess the remnant of Edom, And all the nations on whom My name is called, An affirmation of Jehovah—doer of this.

In Acts 15 apostle James comments on Amos' prophecy, making it crystal clear, as recorded by Luke in the book of Acts, 15:13-17, that this prophecy of Amos 9:11-12 has already come to pass before the time of Jame's speaking of it; it having come to pass as recorded in Acts 10 with apostle Peter's visit to Cornelius and his household, ones of of another ethnic group, i.e., gentiles, to bring the knowledge of salvation through belief in the name of Jesus Christ to them.  Acts 10 records the event which for the first time brought in believers from an ethnic group other than the children of Israel, into being part of the building of God's "tent". 


The building of God's "tent", i.e., a "domed-roof house", certainly IS the context here in Acts 15:7-20, recorded about two thousand years ago, as much as some "Christian leaders" refuse to believe that the Lord God has already raised up his "tent' of homing-down, the true "tent', the one absolutely not made with mortal's hands, but the "tent" which the Lord God made/raised up, and is still making/raising it up, with his own "hands"!


Acts 15:13 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) with (meta) the (to) [passing of the time, AE] of them (autous) to be hushed (sigēsai), James (Iakōbos) was caused to make [a] decision (apekrithē), saying (legōn), “Males (andres), brothers (adelphoi), hear (akousate) me (mou),


Acts 15:14 (LIT/UBS4) Simeon (Sumeōn) led out1834 (exēgēsato) first (prōton), down according to as (kathōs) the (ho) God (theos) caused himself to scope in upon (epeskepsato) [the ethnic groups, AE] to take (labein) out (ex) of ethnic groups (ethnōn) [a] people (laon) for the (tō) name (onomati) of him (autou).


Acts 15:15 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) to this (toutō) the (hoi) Words (logoi) of the (tōn) prophets (prophētōn) symphonize together (sumphōnousin), down according to as (kathōs) it has been written (gegraptai):


Acts 15:16 (LIT/UBS4) With (meta) [the passing, AE] of these things (tauta) I shall turn up390 (anastrepsō), and (kai) I shall build up [a] domed-roof house456 (anoikodomēsō) of the (tēn) tent (skēnēn) of David (Dauid), the one (tēn) having fallen (peptōkuian).


And (kai) of the things (ta) of her (autēs) having been dug down (kateskammena) I shall build up [a] domed-roof house456 (anoikodomēsō), and (kai) I shall build her up straight (anorthōsō autēn);


Acts 15:17 (LIT/UBS4) so that (hopōs) perhaps (an) the ones (hoi) remaining down (kataloipoi) of the (tou) mortals (anthrōpōn) may search out (ekzētēsōsin) the (ton) Lord (kurion, YHWH);’  


all (panta) the (ta) ethnic groups (ethnē) also (kai) upon (eph’) whom (hous) the (to) name (onoma) of me (mou) has been called upon aloud (epikeklētai) over (ep’) [the sake, AE] of them (autous), says (legei) [the] Lord (kurios) doing (poiōn) these things (tauta),


Acts 15:18 (LIT/UBS4) things known (gnōsta) from (ap’) [the] age (aiōnos)


(See Amos 9:11-12)


In John 10 Jesus Christ certainly recognized the meaning of Amos' prophecy:


John 10:16 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) I have (echō) others (alla), sheep (probata) which (ha) are (estin) absolutely not (ouk) out (ek) of the (tēs) courtyard (aulēs) of this (tautēs)



It is required (dei) of me (me) to lead (agagein) those ones also (kakeina).  


And (kai) the (tēs) voice (phōnēs) of me (mou) they shall hear (akousousin).  


And (kai) they shall cause themselves to become (genēsontai) one (mia) flock (poimnē), of one (heis) shepherd (poimēn).


Since the day of Pentecost all those, no matter which ethnic group, who BELIEVE upon Jesus' name become his sheep (John 10:26).  All those who are Jesus' sheep hear his voice, and he knows them, and they follow him (John 10:27).  Jesus and his "sheep" are the "tent" of the Lord God.  They are the ones upon which the Lord God had his "eye", as prophesied and recorded in Isa. 66:2.


Heb. 8:1 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) [the] head-cost2774 (kephalaion) over (epi) the things (tois) being said (legomenois) [is] [this, AE]:


We have (echomen) [a] chief sacrificial priest (archierea) like this (toiouton), one who (hos) sat down (ekathisen) in (en) right (dexia) of the (tou) throne (thronou) of the (tēs) magnificence (megalōsunēs) in (en) the (tois) heavens (ouranois);


Heb. 8:2 (LIT/UBS4) [a] liturgist (leitourgos) of the (tōn) holy ones (hagiōn), and (kai) of the (tēs) tent (skēnēs), the (tēs) true (alēthinēs) [tent, RE] which (hēn) the (ho) Lord (kurios) pegged4078 (epēxen), absolutely not (ouk) [a] mortal (anthrōpos) 


Heb. 9:11 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) Christ (Christos) having caused himself to become alongside3854 (paragenomenos) [a] chief sacrificial priest (archiereus) of the (tōn) good things (agathōn) having caused themselves to come to pass (genomenōn), through (dia) the (tēs) greater (meizonos) and (kai) completed (teleioteras) tent (skēnēs), one absolutely not (ou) hand-made (cheiropoiētou), (this (taut’) [completed tent, RE] is (estin) absolutely not (ou) of this (tautēs), the (tēs) [present] creation (ktiseōs)),


Heb. 9:12 (LIT/UBS4) but absolutely not (oude) through (di’) blood (haimatos) of he-goats (tragōn) and (kai) of young offspring (moschōn), but (de) through (dia) the (tou) blood (haimatos) of his own (idiou) he entered in (eisēlthen) once upon [a] time (ephapax) into (eis) the (ta) holy places (hagia), he having caused himself to find (heuramenos) ageless (aiōnian) redemption (lutrōsin)!


Many have interpreted this verse to mean that it refers to Jesus physically walking into the "holy place" in the temple in Jerusalem.  But that is absolutely not how the "holy place" is qualified in the context of this passage by the writer!  This reference, Heb. 9:11-12, is to the prophesied "tent" of the Lord God, which was the "holy places" into which Jesus Christ entered!  The writer of Hebrews is absolutely not talking about a physical "tent", a physical "holy place" of some kind that exists somewhere, or ever existed in the present creation!  The writer is still talking about the "tent" he mentioned back in Heb. 8:2, the one which the Lord "pegged", a "tent" which is absolutely not "pegged" by a mortal man.  The "tent" into  which Jesus Christ "entered into" is a "tent" which cannot be built by human hands!


In these two verses (Heb. 9:11-12) the writer of Hebrews tells us that the man Jesus Christ entered in into the "tent", the holy place, and how the man Jesus Christ entered in into that holy place; he entered in (instrumental method) into the prophesied "tent" of God through (dia), or by way of, the sacrifice of himself, through the shedding of his own blood.  The writer of this passage, Heb. chapters 8-9, clearly states that he is talking about the prophesied "tent" which is absolutely not (please notice the emphatic particle of negation, ou) hand-made, which we have learned from other passages means the hands of mortal men did not, and cannot, build it because it is not of the present creation, and the Lord God says he is going to build it with his own "hands". (Exod. 15:17; Heb. 8:2). 


These verses show that although Jesus Christ was a mortal man, the Lord God did the "pegging".  These verses show how the God instrumentally used his firstborn (prōtotokos) [son, v13, RE] of all of creation (Col. 1:15; Heb. 3:2), the Word, who "caused himself to become flesh (sarx) and (kai) he tented (eskēnōsen) among (en) us (hēmin) (John 1:14), to "peg" his prophesied true place to stay, his true "tent", which is not made with human hands, but with God's own "hand".    


When did the Lord God first "move in" to his own prophesied "tent"?  I believe it was immediately after Jesus' water baptism by John the baptist, when the Spirit of God, as if it was a dove, came down upon Jesus (Mat. 3:13-17; Mark 1:9-11; Luke 3:21-22).  I believe also that was day when Jesus Christ became spiritually 'begotten" by his Father, the God, since that was when Jesus received into him the God's paternal seed (1 Pet. 1:23; Rom. 8:15-17), God's gift of holy Spirit. 


I believe just as Jesus Christ received sonship with his heavenly Father, the God, likewise all those who believe God's Word about Jesus Christ, and who thusly believe upon Jesus' name receive sonship as well, through receiving God's Spirit into themselves as Jesus did.  This is the record in God's Word of how all, including Jesus Christ himself, become paternal sons of the God, through receiving the new birth above, a baptism in God's gift of holy Spirit, the gift of himself!   


According to apostle Paul, in his letter to the believers in the Colosse area, the God moved into his prophesied "tent" completely!


Col. 1:19 (LIT/UBS4) because (hoti) all (pan) of the (to) fullness (plērōma) [of the God, v15, ER] well-approved (eudokēsen) to home-down (katoikēsai) in (en) him (autō)


(See Col. 2:9; Eph. 3:16-19)


Col. 1:20 (LIT/UBS4) and (kai) to reconcile (apokatallaxai) all the things (ta panta) into (eis) himself (auton), through (di’) him (autou), [the God, v15, ER] having made peace (eirēnopoiēsas) through (di’) him (autou);


[the God, v15, ER] [having made peace, RE] through (dia) the (tou) blood (haimatos) of the (tou) stake (staurou) of him (autou), whether (eite) the things (ta) [are] upon (epi) the (tēs) land (gēs), whether (eite) the things (ta) [are] in (en) the (tois) heavens (ouranois)


(See Luke 5:17; John 3:2, 5:19-20, 8:16, 29, 9:33, 10:38, 14:10-11, 28; Acts 10:38; 2 Cor. 5:18-19; Eph. 4:6; Col. 1:19-20)


Col. 2:9 (LIT/UBS4) Because (hoti) in (en) him (autō) homes-down (katoikei) all (pan) the (to) fullness (plērōma) of the (tēs) godliness (theotētos) [of God, AE] bodily (sōmatikōs)


(See Col. 1:19; Eph. 3:16-19)


The Lord God was living in his 'tent" completely, in his entirety, while he was reconciling us to himself, so we could come into his own "tent" with him!



4095 - drinking the blood of me (pinō, verb) - An ancient Hebrew idiom Christ Jesus used in John 6:54.  In John 6:54, drinking is a metaphor for breathing in holy Spirit, and blood is used as a type for holy Spirit.  Blood is the element in the physical body which gives it life (Lev. 11:11-14).  However, the blood of mortals became corrupted with sin upon Adam and Eve's disobedience to God the heavenly Father, and that sin began the process of death within them.  That which can remove the corruption in the blood is holy Spirit, the baptism in holy Spirit from Jesus Christ.  The gift of holy Spirit is the power that can change death unto life.  On his heavenly Father's behalf, as his agent, Jesus Christ gives the new birth above to anyone who believes upon Jesus' name, which a baptism in God's gracious paternal seed, his gift of his holy Spirit (Mat. 3:11).  See "5176 - gnawing the flesh of me" for a much more comprehensive explanation of Jesus' allegory of metaphorical usages representing his body and blood.



4098 - having fallen (piptō, verb) - This is another reference to the Middle Eastern cultural custom of bowing to one another.  Bowing to one another is typically done along with meetings/introductions, and farewells.  There are various words used by the apostles in their writings which refer to this custom. For a comprehensive explanation of this custom and verse references see section 4352 here in the LITG.



4105 - wander/wandering (planaō, verb) - A common idiom used to describe any thought, word or action which was not acceptable, not up to the standards, not in keeping with the injunctions, etc..  Wandering is used in the sense of straying off the correct path as in the examples in 1 John 1:8; 2:26; 3:7 and elsewhere.



4106 - method of the Wanderer (planēs, noun) - In Eph. 4:14, apostle Paul, speaking to the believers in Ephesus, called them alongside not to remain as infants spiritually, but to grow up into the fullness of the maturity of Jesus Christ through not allowing themselves to be victims of the method of the WandererWanderer (planēs), with the definite article, I believe is a reference to the devil.  In 1 John 4:6, apostle John gives us some practical knowledge of discerning of spirits (1 Cor. 12:10), through discerning between those mortals who recognize, hear and agree with God's Word when we speak it, and those who do not.  Those who do not recognize, hear and agree with God's Word, what's plainly written, chapter and verse, are of the spirit of the Wanderer, the devil, of the spirit of the antichrist (1 John 4:3).  Therefore, the method of the Wanderer, the method of the devil, and the method of the antichrist, practically speaking, are all one and the same method, i.e., the method of using lies and deception.  The Sadducees, Pharisees and scribes all practiced the method of the Wanderer, whose father, Jesus said, was the devil (John 8:43-44).  



4127 - plagues (plēgē, common noun) - In most all English translations the Greek word plēgē is translated as plague or plagues.  In our modern usage the word plague usually means the spread of a disease of some kind.  The meaning of the word is somewhat limited to meaning a disease, and then the spreading o fit.  But the ancient meaning of this word, as understood by those who wrote the ancient scrolls of our modern bibles, was much broader in its meaning.  To them a plague was a blow being struck.  For example, if a person was beaten and robbed, he has been plagued, he has been beatenHitting or striking something is plaguing something.  And so in my Literal Idiomatic Translation when you read the words plague, plagues, or plagued, it simply means a blow being struck.  For example: 


In Luke 10:30 Luke records Jesus' parable of a certain man coming down from Jerusalem into Jericho, while on the road was beaten and robbed.  The Greek text says literally, "...and having put upon him plagues, ..." literally means the man was struck and beaten with the fists, clubs, rods, or something.  he was plagued.  A plagues can refer to a disease, but not always.  The context must be read carefully to determined the writer's meaning with his use of the word plēgē. 


In Acts 16:23 Luke records when Paul and Barnabas were in Philippi, they were dragged before the civil authorities and beaten, i.e., plagued according to the text.  The AV, Darby and Rotherham translations, and many others, translate plēgē as stripes, causing the reader to believe that Paul and Barnabas were whipped.  In those translations stripes is simply the translator's own personal opinion and private interpretation.  The Greek text simply is not that specific as to how Paul and Barnabas were beaten.  They could have been whipped, or beaten with rods which was very common, or beaten some other way.  The text is simply not that specific.  Therefore, when you may read the words plague, plagues or plagued, as I translate plēgē in my LIT translation, it means no more or no less than blows being struckHOW those blows were struck, or with WHAT instrument those blows were struck must be determined by the context, and not by the word plēgē itself.  



4135 - fully borne [in mind] (plērophoreō, verb) - An idiom identical to our English idiom to bare in mind, meaning to be constantly mindful of something, always remembering something; and thereby to temper what is said or done with what is being kept in mind. 


In Luke 1:1- Luke fully bore in mind all of the issues about Christianity about which he wrote in his gospel addressed to Theophilus.


In Rom. 4:17-22 apostle Paul tells us how Abraham kept God's promise in his mind.  Abraham didn't judge through God's promise to him until finally arriving at doubt and unbelief about (v20), but bore it fully in his mind, pondering it and thinking it through fully, until finally Abraham came to the point of believing God's promise to him was true.  Abraham dwelling upon and pondering in his mind God's promise to him, brought him to arriving at believing it.  Why did Abraham finally arrive at believing God's Word was true?  He logically concluded that what the God has promised to him, he was inherently powerful enough to do it (v21)!  God would not have promised anything to Abraham if it was not God's will to do it.  And then secondly, Abraham believed that the God was powerful enough to do it.  So then, if God has the will to do it, and the power to do it, then why not believe he shall do it? 


In Rom. 14:5-6 apostle Paul teaches us to fully bear in mind how others may esteem the significance of certain days, and how other may esteem certain foods, that it is not our place to judge one another over these issues; but rather our place is to have the knowledge of God's Word to be accountable to the God the heavenly Father and ourselves about our own selves, over what we allow in our own lives to be pleasing to the Father.


In 2 Tim. 4:1-5 apostle Paul instructs Timothy to fully bear in mind his ministry; to be sober in all things, to suffer evil, and do the work of an evangelist, especially in regards to reproving, epitomizing and comforting others among the ekklesia; and to do it in all patience and according to God's Word. 


In 2 Tim. 4:17 apostle Paul says that with the Lord's help, with him standing alongside of him, Paul was able to preach God's Word to the extent that it was fully borne in the minds of those who heard it.  In order for it to be fully borne it must have been fully taught, completely taught; not simply a part of it, but Paul, who was given the Ministry of Reconciliation as well as we (2 Cor. 5:18) preached the whole Word of Reconciliation (2 Cor. 5:19), every part of it so that it could be completely put together and understood in the minds of those who heard it. 


Apostle Paul taught the fullness of the subject of the Word of Reconciliation, so that the full load, the complete subject matter of it, could be and was borne/kept in the minds of those who heard it, as it was in his own mind.  Wow!  How fantastically he must have taught it.  You wouldn't catch me falling asleep and falling out of a window.  How fantastic would it be for the full Word of Reconciliation to be preached and taught somewhere today!  How fantastic would it be simply to find someone who wanted to hear it; someone who had enough desire, patience and mental ability to be able to comprehend it.   Most people can't fight off the boredom enough to stay awake for even an hour during Sunday morning service! 


Who loves God the heavenly Father enough, and his son Jesus Christ enough, to desire enough to learn the full knowledge of the subject of the Word of Reconciliation?  Corporately the children of Israel didn't care to hear it (Mat. 13:15).  But many other ethnic groups did.  With knowledge comes the responsibility for it, and hereby we know who are the actors and who are the true believers upon the name of Jesus Christ.  Apostle Paul taught the complete, full Word of Reconciliation to those of other nations and languages.  If someone spends their whole life going to church on Sunday and then dies without having learned the full knowledge of the Word of Reconciliation, that is a witness to their own acting and false belief.  They never were a believer, only a social clubber, a "Sunday Christian" caring a Bible for appearances.  It's no one's fault but their own.  Absolutely no one can say that the God is a piker, that he wasn't willing to teach them through his holy Spirit in them (Mat. 7:7; John 6:45; James 1:5-6)!


Now, in order for us to rise up to the level of the bar as true disciples of Jesus Christ, shouldn't we, who consider ourselves spiritual, fully bear in our minds the whole Word of Reconciliation, since we've been given the Ministry of Reconciliation as well as apostle Paul who committed it to us (2 Cor. 5:18)?  Shouldn't we take to heart all of our heavenly father's great and precious promises to us under his new covenant in Jesus' shed blood (2 Pet. 1:4)?


Now you go find a promise in God's about a need in your life.   This idiom which has come down to us over the centuries is virtually identical to as it was two thousand years ago, when we say, "keep this in mind", or , "please bear this in mind".  Abraham fully bore God's promise to him in his mind, thinking it over, thinking it through, until he finally arrived at the point of belief in God's Word to him.



4151 - spirit, Spirit (pneuma, common noun) -



4184 - many spleened (polusplagchnos, adj.) - An idiom meaning one is able to show love, grace and mercy over and over again.  The spleen, although being an actual organ in our physical body, was attributed as being the internal source of love, grace and mercy toward others.  In our modern world our heart is referred to figuratively as the source of our love, grace and mercy toward others.  See spleen.



4200 - procurement (porismos, noun) - The acquiring of physical wealth and possessions. 



4216 - river-worn (potamophorētos, adj.) - A grizzly reference in Rev. 12:15 meaning to drown in water. Apparently the adversary intended for the woman to become totally overcome from being in control of herself to him being in total control of her, to drown her and kill her.  A flood of water is often used throughout God's Word as a metaphorical reference to the overcoming power the devil wishes to exert on people, to control and or kill them.  It is a reference to the devil's collective use of his own deceitful methods, which are predominantly lies, which he spews out of his "mouth" or "mouths", those who work both willingly or ignorantly for the devil.



4230 - pragmatisms (pragmateia, noun) - In 2 Tim. 2:4 apostle Paul gives Timothy an injunction to absolutely not become entangled in all of life's little rules, the endless mortal-made social and political correctness rules about how to do everything properly, which many times run contrary to how a believing disciple of Jesus Christ must walk according to God's Word, to be and remain pleasing in the Father's sight.  The God the heavenly Father's Word is the rule book by which disciples of Jesus Christ must compete in this life against the adversary the devil.  The God the heavenly Father's book of rules trumps mortal-kind's book of rules for those disciples of Jesus Christ who care about being and remaining pleasing in the Father's sight.  Only through competing lawfully in life's spiritual competition, competing by following God's book of rules can a spiritual athlete be guaranteed of being presented the wreath of victory.



4274 - a precursor (prodromos, pronominal adj.) - From 4253 pro, meaning before or pre, and 1408 dromos, meaning a course.  I believe the pronominal adjective prodromos is best literally translated using the Latin-based noun precursor, meaning one who goes before or first.  The entire meaning of the word prodromos, like many other words, is not entirely inherent within the word itself, but the meaning of the word must be ascertained given the immediate context in which the word is used. 


In the context of Heb. 6:20 the meaning of prodromos is one who shows a course ahead for others to follow, that one being Jesus Christ.  Jesus Christ caused himself to become a sacrificial priest after the order of Melchisedek through the sacrifice of himself, thereby qualifying him to enter in into the inner-most holy place of God's "tent", the "house" of God (Heb. 7:24-27, 10:1-23).  Christ Jesus then made all those who believe upon his name to become sacrificial priests as well (1 Pet. 2:1-10) after the order of Melchisedek, through giving them a new birth above, baptizing them in the Father's gift of holy Spirit, thusly causing them to become parts of Christ Jesus' one body.   All those in Christ Jesus' one body, they now being living "stones", they are now being built into God's Spirit-based "house", and they are sacrificial priests.  And thusly they are qualified as well to enter in after Christ Jesus, into the most holy place in God the heavenly Father's "tent", since they are parts of the "tent", the "house", to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God (1 Pet. 2:5).  The one body of Christ is being built into the homing-down place of the God, in one Spirit (Eph. 2:13-22)!



4298 - was beating forward (prokoptō, verb) - To work hard to advance or proceed forward or toward something, such as a goal, while facing opposition and resistance along the way. 


In Luke's record in Luke 2:43-52, after Joseph and Jesus' mother left Jerusalem supposing Jesus was in the caravan, and not finding him, they went back to Jerusalem, where after three days they found him in the temple hearing the teachers and enquiring of them.   Luke records this event in Jesus' life as a notable occasion in which Jesus was beating forward (verse 52; KJV - increased) in acquiring wisdom, maturity, and favor, alongside to God and to mortals.  In verse 52, with koptō as part of the dual compound of proekopten, pro meaning forward, and ekopten (koptō) meaning to cut, proekopten could be translated as "he was cutting forward", as a man would use a machete to cut his way forward through thick brush and undergrowth.  The contextual implication is that the young boy Jesus was working hard to grow up in wisdom, maturity and grace alongside of the God, cutting his way through the "brush" and "undergrowth" blocking his way to moving forward in the growth of his personal Spiritual maturity.  The "brush" and "undergrowth" is likely to be the false wisdom of mortals.  Jesus was questioning religious leaders and discussing with them to get at the truth of God's Word, as opposed to wanting to know all of their own opinions, theories and guesswork.


 This passage emphasizes the human mortal man Jesus, and as such is an example of which we are to follow.  The example here in Luke 2:43-52 is of Jesus using the religious leadership, either one-on-one and/or in a group, to explain to him their knowledge and understanding of the biblical prophetic texts, and for him to explain to them what he believes those texts mean.  Jesus Christ stated in Mat. 7:7 to ask, seek and knock to discover the knowledge and wisdom of the God.


In Rom. 13:12 the night beat forward (KJV - far spent) but the day has come near, therefore may we put away the works of darkness and drop into (idiom - to become clothed in) the weapons of the light.  Night is used as a metaphor for all manner of evil, ignorance and confusion.  It is only finally restrained by the coming of dawn and the morning light, which is a metaphor for the knowledge and wisdom of God's Word; which light is a resistance to all darkness.


In Gal. 1:14 apostle Paul gives us some insight into his pre-Christian endeavor, which was to beat forward (KJV - profited) in the patriarchal traditions of Judaism, as if in a competitive race, zealous beyond others more mature-aged than himself, pursuing after the assembly of God and wasting her.  Any religion which has been founded upon the values of love and compassion, and which has been successfully infiltrated by the devil and turned into an instrument for his own use, as was Judaism in the time of Jesus' earthly ministry, has been turned into a cartel of hate and murder.  Wherever you see hate, that is where the devil is actively working.  Look around a little.  Do you see hate anywhere, in any organizations, in any individuals in your workplace, family members, friends, politicians, religious leaders?  Hate very often wears a smile.  I believe the devil may have taught mortalkind how to smile.


In 2 Tim. 2:14-16, apostle Paul warns Timothy about becoming engaged in word-wars with others who are speaking empty words (lit. empty sounds), as in meaningless sounds, whose words are over the threshold and out of bounds of the truth of the knowledge of God's Word; which empty sounds beat forward toward encouraging/producing more ungodliness.  The only restraint to empty words and sounds, i.e., confusion, is the truth of God's Word.


See also 2 Tim. 3:9, KJV - they shall proceed; 2 Tim. 3:13, KJV - shall wax.



4308 - foregazing (prooraō, verb) - An idiom meaning to foresee in the mind's eye.  From pro and horaoHorao implies more than a glimpse or a glance, but a continued stare or gaze at something.  In Acts 2:25-28 apostle Peter, in his day of Pentecost preaching, is quoting King David from Psalm 16:8-11, who says that through all the things he, David, experienced in his life, "I was foregazing at the Lord in sight of me, through everything..."; David, in his mind, foresaw the Lord Jesus Christ as being in his presence, at his right hand.



4314 - to, toward (pros, prep.) - Pros refers to the motion to or toward either an objective or subjective destination.

Pros is generally translated as "to" when the context appears to refer to a final destination, such as a person, or a city. Pros is used many times to refer to people coming to (pros) Jesus for healing, Jesus being the final destination and goal of their travel.

Pros is generally translated as "toward" when the context appears to refer to and emphasize the motion of travel toward something, but not necessarily as of reaching the final destination, although the final destination may be mentioned in the context as well.



4335 - [a] prayer of well-thankfulness to [God] (proseuchē, common noun) - See 4336.



4336 - to be well-thankful to [God] (proseuchomai, verb) - A term referencing both personal and corporate prayer to our heavenly Father, the God.  Under the new covenant, scriptural examples teach us that personal prayer, in the time on and after the great day of Pentecost (Acts 2), was done through both speaking words in our own native language, and speaking in tongues, which latter is a believer manifesting God's gift of his paternal Spirit within that believer, in order for a believer to give thanks well back to the heavenly Father through speaking a language of some kind previously unknown to the speaker (Rom. 8:26).


The term is also used of prayer with our own soul-based language.  Apostle Paul said that he prayed both ways (1 Cor. 14:14-15).  However, Christ Jesus and apostle Paul place emphasis upon a believer manifesting God's gift of his Spirit within when praying a prayer of well-thankfulness toward God (John 4:23-24; Eph. 6:18).  The various inflected forms of the verb describe the acts of praying prayers of well-thankfulness toward God.  Studying all of these inflected forms is well worth the time to a believer, in order to develop a prayer life which is as effective as was that of Jesus' disciples and apostles in the first century.  Modern Christianity, on account of its general shallowness, more or less ignores the scriptural concept of how the quality of spirit-based prayer directly affects the productivity of prayer, to allow our heavenly Father to bring to pass, under his new covenant, his great and precious promises in our lives.


For a few noun references to speaking in tongues see Luke 19:46; Rom. 15:30; Eph. 6:18.  For a few verb references to speaking in tongues see Rom. 8:25-26; 1 Cor. 14:13-15, Eph. 6:18; Jude 1:20.  In the new covenant writings there are about 37 usages of the noun, and about 87 usages of the verb.  Speaking in another tongues or tongues is based upon the gift of God's holy Spirit being manifested by a believer within that believer.  The biblical records, especially in Acts, show us that speaking in a new tongue or tongues was a normal and very common occurrence among newborn believers.  There is no reason for, or biblical evidence for, why any newborn believers today, or at any time, shouldn't be able to manifest God's gift of holy Spirit within them.  Apostle Paul taught that everyone should be speaking in a new tongue or tongues in their prayer life (1 Cor. 14:5).  The biblical texts refer to it as perfect prayer (), and apostle Paul taught that it is the kind of prayer preferable to the God (), your/our heavenly Father.



4337 - hold toward (prosechō, verb) - An idiom meaning to keep close together with one another.  In Luke 17:3-4 Jesus commands his disciples to stay closely knit together with one another.  They were to be especially tolerant and forgiving of one another as they carried out the work of their master.  In verse three "brother" refers to another disciple of Jesus.  Jesus disciples were to consider and call one another "brother" (Mat. 23:8).  Jesus said that whoever does the will of the Father of him is as a brother to him (Mat. 12:50; Mark 3:35).  So in a broad sense, "hold together" means that the "brothers" were to stick together closely, like family.  The teaching that everyone in the world is your 'brother" is a humanistic lie, and entirely non-biblical.  Biblically, according to God's Word, and specifically according to Jesus Christ, a "brother" is one who does God the heavenly Father's will habitually and consistently.  Biblically, those who do not do God's will, are evil, and are enemies.  There is no middle ground whatsoever since all mortals sin, but only some, those who have called upon the name of Jesus, 'brothers', have God's forgiveness, even if perhaps they may continue to sin.   



4352 - to bow to (proskuneō, verb) - This is another reference to the Middle Eastern cultural custom of bowing to one another.  Bowing to one another is typically done along with meetings, introductions, and farewells.  There are various words used by the apostles in their writings which refer to the very common custom of bowing to one another. Below is a list of those words beginning with their Strong's number:


344, anakamptō, to bow up (Mat. 2:12; Luke 10:6; Acts 18:21; Heb. 11:15). From the contexts in which this word is used it appears to me to refer to a farewell bow of some kind, a bow which is done to others upon saying goodby and departing.  In Mat. 2:11-12, after the Magi found the very young child Jesus and bowed to him as the new true king of Israel, they subsequently received a dream in which they were directed not to go back to king Herod and now bow up to him.


1120, gonupeteō, to fall to one's knees (Mat. 17:14, 27:29; Mark 1:40, 10:17);


2578, kamptō, to bow (Rom. 10:4, 14:11; Eph. 3:14; Phil. 2:10);


4098, piptō, to fall (Mat. 2:11, 4:9, 17:6, 18:26, 29, 26:39; Mark 5:22, 14:35; Luke 5:12, 8:41, 17:16; John 11:32; Acts 9:4, 10:25, 22:7; 1 Cor. 14:25; Rev. 1:17, 4:10, 5:8, 14, 7:11, 11:16, 19:4, 10, 22:8);


4352, proskuneō, to bow to / toward (Mat. 2:2, 8, 11, 4:9, 10, 8:2, 9:18, 14:33, 15:25, 18:26, 20:20, 28:9; Mark 5:6, 15:19; Luke 4:7, 8, 24:52; John 4:20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 9:38, 12:20; Acts 7:43, 8:27, 10:25, 24:11; 1 Cor. 14:25; Heb. 1:6, 11:21; Rev. 3:9, 4:10, 5:14, 7:11, 9:20, 11:1, 16, 13:4, 8, 12, 15, 14:7, 9, 11, 15:4, 16:2, 19:4, 10, 20, 20:4, 22:8, 9);


4353, proskunētēs, bowers (John 4:23);


4363, prospiptō, to fall toward (Mark 3:11, 5:33, 7:25, Luke 5:8, 8:28, 47; Acts 16:29);


5087, tithēmi, to place the knees (Acts 20:36).


Many Bible translations have ignored this Greek word proskuneō, meaning to bow, and have erroneously chosen to translate its forms into English as worship, totally ignoring the apostles abundant biblical references to their common custom of bowing to one another upon greetings and farewells. The LIT renders the biblical references correctly in all passages, so the reader can read a quote of what the apostles actually wrote.


Theological theories should be published as such in separate works rather than surreptitiously and dishonestly fudging those theories ad-hoc into Bible translations, and then allowing the readers to believe they are actually the words of the apostles.


The popular ethnologist and Aramaic language expert George M. Lamsa, B. A., in his book titled Gospel Light, gives us some insight about the ancient Middle Eastern custom of bowing, commenting on John 9:36-38.


Here's what apostle John wrote:


John 9:36 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) that one (ekeinos) was caused to make [a] decision (apekrithē), and (kai) he enunciated (eipen), “Who (tis) is (estin) [the son of the mortal, v35, RE], lord (kurie), in order that (hina) I may believe (pisteusō) into (eis) him (auton)?”


John 9:37 (LIT/UBS4) The (ho) Jesus (Iēsous) enunciated (eipen) to him (autō), “You have both gazed at (kai heōrakas) him (auton), and (kai) it is (estin) that one (ekeinos), the one (ho) speaking (lalōn) with (meta) you (sou).”


John 9:38 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) the one (ho) shed light5346 (ephē), "Lord (kurie), I believe (pisteuō)."


And (kai) he bowed to4352 (prosekunēsen) him (autō).


The time frame which is now believed to be the most likely time in which a collection of biblical Greek texts were translated into a Syriac Gospel of some kind, into the Aramaic language, is about 160-180 AD. According to Lamsa's statement, the translator or translators reading from their set of Greek new testament texts read the word prosekunēsen, or a close inflected form of it, from which they understood the apostle John to write that the one who was blind bowed to Jesus.  The apostle John didn't write worship, he wrote bow, explaining the common cultural custom he observed.


"The Aramaic word sagad, worship, also means to bend or to kneel down. Easterners in greeting each other generally bow the head or bend down. When a ruler or holy man is greeted, the people kneel before him. "He worshipped him" does not imply that he (the one who was blind) worshipped Jesus as one who worshipped God. Such an act would have been regarded as sacrilegious and a breach of the first commandment in the eyes of the Jews, and the man might have been stoned. But he knelt before him in token of homage and gratitude. This is also a sign of self-surrender and loyalty." (Lamsa, Goerge M., Gospel Light: From Aramaic of The Teachings Of Jesus, Philadelphia: A. J. Holman Co., 1936)


Fred H. Wight, in his online publication, Manners And Customs Of Bible Lands, sheds more light on the common custom of bowing:


"When a guest is received into an Orient home, bowing between the guests and host is quite apt to take place. In Western lands such bowing would be of the head only, but in the East there is a more expressive custom of saluting with the head erect and the body a little inclined forward, by raising the hand to the heart, mouth, and forehead. The symbolic meaning of this action is to say something like this: "My heart, my voice, my brain are all at your service."


But those who are used to this custom on many occasions enter into a more complete bow. They do not wait to do this only for royalty, but when they want to express thanks for a favor, or supplicate for a favor, and at many other times of meeting they often fall on their knees, and then incline the body touching the ground with their head, and kissing the lower part of the other person's clothing, or his feet, or even the dust at his feet. To those not acquainted with such manners, it would seem that one person was worshiping the other like he would worship GOD; but ordinarily, worship of this sort is not involved in the action.


Cornelius is said to have worshiped Peter: "And as Peter was coming in, Cornelius met him and fell down at his feet, and worshipped him" (Acts 10:25). Of course Peter rejected this lest it might involve divine worship. Concerning the enemies of the Philadelphian church, the Book of Revelation records these words of our LORD: "I will make them of the synagogue of Satan . . . I will make them to come and worship before thy feet" (Rev. 3:9). The Revisers have a marginal note in explanation of the word "worship" in both of these Scriptures: "The Greek word denotes an act of reverence, whether paid to a creature or to the Creator." There are many examples in the Bible of this Eastern custom of bowing in varying degrees of intensity (cf. Genesis 18:2,3; 23:7, 12; Matthew 18:26; Revelation 19:10)." (Wight, Fred H., Manners And Customs Of Bible lands, Chapter Seven - The Sacred Duty Of Hospitality, 1953,


Mr. Wight's references to worship in Acts 10:25, Rev. 3:9, Mat. 18:26, and Rev. 19:10, are all occurrences of an inflected form of the word proskuneō, meaning to bow to or toward.  Those passages are all about the custom of bowing, not worshiping.


The author of the popular Complete Word Study Dictionary - New Testament, Spiros Zodhiates, also helps us to understand the meaning of proskuneō: 


“to kiss, adore. To worship, do obeisance, show respect, fall or prostrate before. Literally, to kiss toward someone, to throw a kiss in token of respect or homage. The ancient oriental (especially Persian) mode of salutation between persons of equal ranks was to kiss each other on the lips; when the difference of rank was slight, they kissed each other on the cheek; when one was much inferior, he fell upon his knees and touched his forehead to the ground or prostrated himself, throwing kisses at the same time toward the superior. It is this latter mode of salutation that Gr. writers express by proskunéō. In the NT, generally, to do reverence or homage to someone, usually by kneeling or prostrating oneself before him. In the Sept. it means to bow down, to prostrate oneself in reverence, homage (Gen. 19:1; 48:12).”  (Zodhiates, Spiros, The Complete Word Study Dictionary – New Testament, AMG International, 1992).


Of all sixty occurrences of an inflected form of proskuneō, meaning to bow to or to bow toward, in the Greek texts used for the KJV Authorized Version of 1769, the AV shows all sixty of them translated as worship.  In those passages the translators have totally ignored what the apostles actually wrote, and they have replaced the apostle's words with someone else's theological theory.  That's not translation, that's lying.  The LIT preserves what the apostles actually wrote, in all sixty occurrences.  The Strong's number for proskuneō is 4352, if you wish to look up all of those occurrences.  Please do!


So then, is there any word or words in the Greek texts which have a meaning similar or identical to the meaning of the English word worship?


First we need to identify exactly what is the current general meaning of the English word worship.


Worship: "reverence or devotion for a deity; religious homage or veneration." (Webster's New World College Dictionary, Fourth edition, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Cleveland, OH, 2002)


It's immediately obvious that the sponsors of the KJV Authorized Version chose to reflect their own theology in their Bibles, and which many other Bible publishers have copied into their Bibles,  through replacing every occurrence of the apostle's writings about the common custom of bowing to one another, to characterize it as worship instead, since there are so many passages showing various people bowing to Jesus.  The translation committee changed bowing to Jesus to worshipping Jesus, to characterize Jesus as being a deity!  Jesus said that he absolutely does not accept glory from mankind (John 5:41)!  But yet the KJV AV translators, and virtually all other Bible translations are fudging them to make them say that many people are worshipping Jesus Christ.


There is a word in the Greek texts, sebō, Strong's #4576, which, according to all of the contexts in which it is used, does mean worship.  Sebō is used 10 times in the UBS4 eclectic Greek text, and I translate it as worship in all occurrences.  It's root meaning is to worship.  But in only six occurrences is the word sebō translated as worship in the AV (Mat. 15:9; Mark 7:7; Acts 16:14, 18:7, 13, 19:27)These are the four verses in which the translation committee wouldn't allow sebō to be translated as worship (Acts 13:43, 50, 17:4, 17).  For some reason, in these verses proselytes were not allowed to be recorded by Luke as actually worshipping the God.  More post history revision.


Of all ten occurrences of sebō in not one occurrence does Luke record that Jesus was the recipient of the worship, the recipient is always the one true God, Jesus' heavenly Father!


Jesus quotes the prophet Isaiah, quoting the heavenly Father:


Mat. 15:7 (LIT/UBS4) Actors (hupokritai)


Isaiah (Hsaias) beautifully (kalōs) prophesied (eprophēteusen) about (peri) you (humōn), saying (legōn),


Mat. 15:8 (LIT/UBS4) ‘The (ho) people (laos), this (houtos) [people, RE], honor (tima) me (me) [with, AE] the (tois) lips (cheilesin).


But (de) the (hē) heart (kardia) of them (autōn) distantly (porrō) holds away (apechei) from (ap’) me (emou).


Mat. 15:9 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) emptily (matēn) they cause themselves to revere (sebontai) me (me), teaching (didaskontes) for teachings (didaskalias) precepts (entalmata) of mortals (anthrōpōn)!’” 


Mark, in Mark 7:7, references the same passage.


When an honest translation is made which preserves the custom of bowing, which doesn't fudge the word worship in place of it, and all of the passages are examined where the writers used the word sebō, which show that the worship was always to the God, Jesus' heavenly Father, then one of the big sneaky translation tricks which was used to indirectly and subtly ascribe deity to Jesus Christ, becomes dismantled!  All of the triune godhead pundits can no longer sound legitimate through simply pointing at their extremely corrupted English translations and say, "Look, Jesus Christ was worshipped, it's in the Bible!"


According to the clarity in the Greek texts, the apostles didn't worship Jesus Christ as a deity, but they and others did bow to him fairly often, according to their customs.  The apostles and disciples received no knowledge or teaching from Jesus Christ about him being a "second person" of a triune godhead.  The the teachings of Jesus Christ, his orthodoxy, he says was taught to him from his heavenly Father, the one true God almighty (John 7:14-17).  There is no triune godhead nomenclature or terminology used by Jesus Christ and his apostles recorded in the Greek texts, none whatsoever, nor in any of the Hebrew texts of the old testament.


Was the God almighty mistaken?  Did he accidentally teach error to his firstborn son, Jesus? 


And then did Jesus pass on that error to his own disciples and apostles?  Was the God's error that he forgot to tell Jesus about a triune godhead, the theological theory invented in the fourth century, the orthodoxy which was established by the Roman god-man emperor Constantine?  Jesus Christ had already shed his own blood for the wholeness/salvation of all mortalkind.  Maybe those teaching the fourth century theological invention are the ones "teaching (didaskontes) for teachings (didaskalias) precepts (entalmata) of mortals (anthrōpōn)!"


When on the day of Pentecost about three thousand souls believed the orthodoxy of Christ Jesus, which he and his apostles and disciples preached and taught, about three thousand souls received wholeness/salvation (Acts 2).  It seems to me like the orthodoxy which Jesus' heavenly Father taught him worked fairly well.  Why did Jesus' orthodoxy need to be replaced in the fourth century by a Roman god-man emperor Constantine?  The triune godhead invention declares that the God's orthodoxy which he taught his son Christ Jesus, which people all through the records in the book of Acts believed to receive wholeness/salvation, is now heresy!  In the fourth century Constantine declared the God's orthodoxy to be heresy, and then he established a new triune godhead orthodoxy, which is today called Christianity, but what it should really be called is Constantinian "Christianity".


Apostle Paul said that he passed along to the believers the orthodoxy which was passed along to him from Christ Jesus (Rom. 6:16-17).


Apostle Paul warned the believers about giving credence to any other orthodoxy than the one which he taught to them (Rom. 16:17-18).


This falsification of virtually all English translations, to ascribe deity to Christ Jesus through replacing the word for bow with the word worship, is only one of hundreds of creative ways Bibles have been corrupted to make the apostles' writings look like they were knowledgeable of, and wrote about, a triune godhead orthodoxy.  It's called post-history revision.  Political correctness aside, it's called lying!



4353 - bowers (proskunētēs, noun) - This is another reference to the Middle Eastern cultural custom of bowing to one another (John 4:23).  Bowing to one another is typically done along with meetings/introductions, and farewells.  There are various words used by the apostles in their writings which refer to this custom. For a comprehensive explanation of this custom and verse references see section 4352 here in the LITG.



4362 - having pegged (prospēgnumi, verb) - In Acts 2:23 apostle Peter recalls a vivid account of the staking and death of Jesus Christ, announcing to all in Jerusalem, on the day of Pentecost, that by the hand of lawless ones among them they annihilated their own Christ.   See 4078 - pegged, for its description and the associated anti-type.



4363 - he fell toward (prospiptō, verb) - This is another reference to the Middle Eastern cultural custom of bowing to one another.  Bowing to one another is typically done along with meetings/introductions, and farewells.  There are various words used by the apostles in their writings which refer to this custom. For a comprehensive explanation of this custom and verse references see section 4352 here in the LITG.



4368 - a prostates (prostatis,noun) - A leader or representative, one who "stands before".


Spiros Zodhiates says:


"It meant not only a leader, ruler, or director (Sept.: 1 Chr. 27:31; 29:6; 2 Chr. 8:10), but was also used by Plutarch for the Lat. patronus, a patron, a defender of a lower person. The word denoted those in Athens who were the patrons, i.e., took care of strangers.  In Rom. 16:2 it means a patroness, helper."  AMG's Complete Word Study Dictionaries - The Complete Word Study Dictionary – New Testament.


Marvin R. Vincent says:


"It is used as a legal term, of presenting culprits or witnesses in a court of justice."  — Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament


Kenneth S. Wuest says:


"It is the word used by Paul when he says that the Lord Jesus stood by him at his trial before Caesar (2 Tim. 4:17). It was used as a legal term of presenting culprits or witnesses in a court of law. Denney says that Paul's language suggests that Phoebe was going to Rome on business in which the Roman saints could assist her. "Succourer" is prostatis, "a woman set over others, a protectress, a patroness," caring for the affairs of others and aiding them with her resources."  Wuest's Word Studies – Volume 1: Word Studies in the Greek New Testament.



4411 - first recliners (prōtoklisia, noun) - The Aramaic language scholar, and translator of the Holy Bible From The Ancient Eastern Text, the Aramaic text, George M. Lamsa, gives us somewhat of a description of and ancient Judean custom followed at dinners and other various occasions for accommodating people who were regarded as being at various levels of importance in social influence.


"The Eastern version reads, 'the front seats in the synagogues, and the head places at banquets.'  This practice is in accord with Eastern customs.  Banquets are held in the large room of a house.  The reference here (Mark 12:38-39) is to the prominent seats and not to rooms.  According to Eastern etiquette, honorable guests, as priests, politicians and rich men, are given the chief places at a banquet.  Here the food is more plentiful and the distance from the door is greater.  Guests are arranged according to social standing.  The least important guests, such as beggars and musicians, sit near the entrance to the room.  If, perchance, a distinguished guest enters late, a servant or the master of the house immediately notifies one of the other guests to take a lower place by saying to him "Get up and go down, an honorable guest is coming."  It often happens that a distinguished guest, arriving late, will take a lower seat, but he is promptly ushered to a higher place as a token of honor."  — Lamsa, George M. Gospel Light - From Aramaic Of The Teachings Of Jesus.  Philadelphia: Holman, 1936.


This custom is mentioned in the following passages of the new covenant texts (Mat. 23:6; Mark 12:39; Luke 11:43, 14:7-8, 20:46).



4413 - first ones (prōtoi, pronominal adj.) - A contracted superlative of pro (4253), indicating a position ranked in front of all other positions, i.e., first in rank, order, time or place of importance Prōtoi is used in Luke 13:30 and other places to indicate a mortal's social position in the social pecking order.  Example's of this colloquialism used in Western Culture would be the president's airplane, Air Force One, or the president's wife, the first lady, etc..  Mortals with wealth, power and position were/are considered to have high social status, and were/are considered first class citizens, or first citizens in the class hierarchy, first on the list of Whose Who, as opposed to last on the list, if on the list at all.  This social classification is still alive and well over almost the entire globe, and always has been.  And in our Western culture it is definitely alive as evidenced by continued racial and social status rhetoric.  Mortals with wealth, power and position have "means" to get things done, as opposed to poor groups in society who have no representation at the tables of the "movers and shakers", whose voices are to faint to be heard from outside the walls in the streets. 


Luke 13:30 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) behold (idou), there are (eisin) last ones2078 (eschatoi) who (hoi) shall cause themselves to be be (esontai) first ones4413 (prōtoi), and (kai) there are (eisin) first ones4413 (prōtoi) who (hoi) shall cause themselves to be (esontai) last ones2078 (eschatoi)!”


Please notice the middle voice causation indicated by the inflected form of the verb esontai, which inflection all translations ignore, but which is the very key needed to properly understand what Jesus actually means in this verse.  Earthly rules of social pecking order are not the only rules in play which determine whether someone, anyone is, or can become, a first or a last citizen. 


Mark 10:28 (LIT/UBS4) The (ho) Peter (Petros) caused himself to start (ērxato) to say (legein) to him (autō), “Behold (idou), we (hēmeis) have let go (aphēkamen) of everything (panta), and (kai) we have followed (ēkolouthēkamen) you (soi)!”


Mark 10:29 (LIT/UBS4) The (ho) Jesus (Iēsous) shed light5346 (ephē), “Truly (amēn) I say (legō) to you (humin), there is (estin) absolutely not one (oudeis) [disciple, v24, RE] who (hos) has let go (aphēken) of [a] house (oikian), or (ē) of brothers (adelphous), or (ē) of sisters (adelphas), or (ē) of [a] mother (mētera), or (ē) of [a] father (patera), or (ē) of born ones (tekna), or (ē) of fields (agrous), on account (heneken) of me (mou) and (kai) on account (heneken) of the (tou) Evangelism (euangeliou),


Mark 10:30 (LIT/UBS4) [who, v29, RE] if perhaps (ean) may not receive (mē labē) [a] hundred times (hekatontaplasiona) [more], now (nun) in (en) the (tō) age (kairō), this one (toutō), of houses (oikias), and (kai) of brothers (adelphous), and (kai) of sisters (adelphas), and (kai) of mothers (mēteras), and (kai) of born ones (tekna), and (kai) of fields (agrous), together with (meta) pursuits (diōgmōn), and (kai) [may receive, RE] in (en) the (tō) age (aiōni), the one (tō) being caused to come (erchomenō), ageless (aiōnion) life (zōēn)!?


Mark 10:31 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) many (polloi) first ones4413 (prōtoi) shall cause themselves to be (esontai) last ones2078 (eschatoi), and (kai) the (hoi) last ones2078 (eschatoi) [shall cause themselves to be, RE] first ones4413 (prōtoi).”


Jesus is speaking of God's new covenant Word which new covenant great and precious promises make provisions for rewarding men and women on earth now who choose to learn and do those things which are pleasing in God's sight, and which earn a believer rewards now while here on earth, and pay rewards in the future of eternal life as well. 


A wealthy first citizen here on earth, a mover and a shaker, one with power and position as well, but yet who doesn't believe upon the precious name of Jesus for deliverance from his sin, is not even a last citizen in the Kingdom of the God, because he'll not be able to enter into the Kingdom of God (Mat. 19:24; Mark 10:25; Luke 18:25).  In God's sight, under the new covenant of Belief, a first one's unbelief in the precious name of Jesus causes himself to become a last one out of being a first one.


But the God promises health, wealth and prosperity to those here on earth now, who now may be considered as last citizens.  This is what God promises under his new covenant for those who believe upon the precious name of Jesus.  In God's sight, under the new covenant Law of Belief a last one's belief in Jesus' precious name causes himself to become a first one out of being a last one.


Some provisions were made under the old covenant Law of Works (Rom. 3:27) for believer's health and prosperity (Deut. 28:1-14), but even more so under the new covenant of the Law of Belief.


See about Enoch (Heb. 11:5-6). Under both covenants God was and is a payer of wages to those searching for him.


See about Moses (Heb. 11:24-27).


See here how to earn earthly and heavenly rewards/wages now, which shall make you first ones in God's sight (Mat. 5:11-12, 46, 6:1-16, 10:41-42; Mark 9:41; Luke 6:22-23, 35; John 4:36; 1 Cor. 3:8, 14; 2 John 1:8; * 2 Pet. 1:1-8; Rev. 22:12).



4475 - a rodding, roddings (rhapisma, common noun) - To beat with a rod.  See Mark 14:65, John 18:22, 19:3.



4494 - being drafted (rhipizō, verb) - An idiom used in James 1:6.  A squall is a brief violent windstorm.  On the ocean, when a ship is caught in a squall, the drafts of air coming at it blow the ship off course and make it difficult to navigate and steer the ship in the intended direction.  James gives us this mental picture as an example to what happens to us when we don't rely upon God's Word as the Truth we should use in our decision-making.  When we try to steer our life using any information other than God's Word we come into a squall and the drafts of lies and deception coming at us blow our minds off course from making the right decision.



4501 - A Rhomphaia (rhomphaia, proper noun) - The ancient Thracians had a weapon called a Rhomphaia used for close combat.  A Rhomphaia is the name of a particular kind of weapon which, from limited historical evidence, is described to be a cross between a sword and a spear, a pole arm.  They were constructed of a long skinny one-edged blade affixed to a long handle, and their combined length was apparently no longer than the height of the person using it. 


Why not simply translate Rhomphaia as sword, like most all other Bible translations?  The biblical writers chose to abundantly use worldly physical objects, elements and substances metaphorically, to represent spiritual realities and Truths.  A Biblical research classic which belongs in anyone's library is Ada R. Habershon's book titled "The Study of the Types".  Understanding exactly what are the various objects, elements and substances the biblical writers used as types having metaphorical meanings helps us to more easily determine what are their spiritual counterparts, when trying to understand the spiritual points the biblical writers were making. 


Objects such as the cup Jesus drank from during the "last supper", his one piece tunic taken from him at his crucifixion, and "trees", are all objects which represent great spiritual truths about how disciples of Christ Jesus should conduct themselves to be pleasing in the sight of God and his son Christ Jesus.  Elements mentioned in the biblical texts such as water, olive oil, and fire, have physical properties which relate closely to how God's Spirit, holy Spirit, works in the physical realm.   Substances such as ointment, wine and vinegar have properties related to physical healing, which properties metaphorically represent those demonstrated by holy Spirit in creation and healing of life.  Seldom does one particular material object, element or substance have only one spiritual counterpart.  Great understanding comes from an in-depth knowledge and understanding of the individual words used within God's Word.  In the ancient biblical texts written by the prophets and apostles, there is no redundant or wasted wordage.  Each and every word is used skillfully for particular purposes.


Jesus Christ states that his Rhomphaia, or his version of it, will have a double-edge blade which cuts on both sides (Rev. 1:16), which he shall use to make war with all of those who are ungodly (Rev. 2:16).  Jesus Christ's use of the Rhomphaia shall cause the dialogues of mortals' hearts to be revealed (Luke 2:35).  Christ Jesus' Rhomphaia shall come out of his mouth (Rev. 2:16).  For more references see Rev. 2:12, 6:8, 9:15, 21.


The following are a few related websites which you may find interesting.



4521 - sabbath days (sabbaton, common noun) - I believe many scholars and translators fail to recognize and understand that this word, sabbaton, being inflected into a plural, is very often reference to a complete seven day weekly cycle, which weekly cycle ends with a sabbath day, it being the seventh day of the cycle.  I believe sabbaton is a reference to the seven day weekly cycle as a whole, but it is in the plural because it references the plurality of days which are within the whole seven day weekly cycle. 


But I see sabbaton used in the singular also, as in Mark 16:9, sabbatou, "of a sabbath", apparently in reference also to a new seven day sabbath cycle.  In Mark 16:9 the language appears to refer to the first day of a new seven day sabbath cycle.  In our modern time this is a reference to early Sunday morning, the first day of a new week.  Contrary to some modern beliefs and practices, scripturally, Sunday is the first day of the week and Saturday is the seventh, or sabbath, day of the week.  Mat. 28:1 states the specific period of time in the seven day cycle, when both Mariams visited the memorial of Jesus, much more clearly.


At the time of Jesus Christ's earthly ministry the children of Israel were following a seven day weekly cycle, each seventh day of that cycle being a sabbath day.  The six days prior to the seventh day sabbath day belonged to that particular coming seventh day as part of its cycle.  A sabbath day was the seventh day, the ending day, and the most important day of that seven day weekly cycle. 


In Mat. 28:1 and Mark 16:2 we can see how a day of a seven day cycle is commonly referenced in an ordinal manner, being referenced by a number for its position in the series of the six days leading up to the seventh day.  In both records we see a reference to the first day of the "sabbath days", which indicates also both the completion of a previous seven-day cycle, and the beginning of a new seven day cycle.


Mat. 28:1 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) late evening (opse) of sabbath days4521 (sabbatōn), the (tē) dawning (epiphōskousē) into (eis) [the] first (mian) [day, AE] of sabbath days4521 (sabbatōn), Mariam (Mariam) the (hē) Magdalene (Magdalēnē), and (kai) the (hē) other (allē) Mariam (Maria), came (ēlthen) to observe (theōrēsai) the (ton) burial place (taphon).


In Mat. 28:1, the phrase translated as "of [the] sabbath days" I believe is a reference to their seven day weekly cycle I believe the phrase "but late evening of the sabbath days" refers to the ending of the seventh day of a previous seven day weekly cycle, which day would be a Saturday; while "the dawning into first [day] of [the] sabbath days" refers to the beginning of the next seven day weekly cycle, and refers specifically to the first day of that weekly cycle, which would be a Sunday according to our modern calendar.


Mark speaks of this seven-day cycle in the same manner as Matthew.


Mark 16:2 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) very greatly (lian) early (prōi) the (tē) first (mia) [day, AE] of the (tōn) sabbath days4521 (sabbatōn), they cause themselves to come (erchontai) upon (epi) the (to) memorial (mnēmeion), the (tou) sun (hēliou) having rose up (anateilantos).


According to our modern, western method of naming the days of the week, at the time of Jesus' earthly ministry the seventh day, the sabbath day, of the children of Israel's seven-day weekly cycle was always on a Saturday (with the exception of special high days which were considered sabbath days as well), and the first day of their weekly cycle always began with Sunday.  Their weekly sabbath cycles started with Sunday, the first day of the "sabbath days", and ended on Saturday, the seventh day of the "sabbath days", the seventh day being the sabbath day itself, the most important day of the weekly cycle.


In Acts 16:13 we can see Luke's reference to the seventh day itself, the sabbath day.


Acts 16:13 (LIT/UBS4) And (te) the (tē) day (hēmera) of the (tōn) sabbath days4521 (sabbatōn) we came out (exēlthomen) outside (exō) of the (tēs) gate (pulēs), alongside (para) a river (potamon), where (hou) we were deciding (enomizomen) [there] to be (einai) prayer of well-thankfulness to4335 (proseuchēn) [God, AE].  


And (kai) having sat down (kathisantes) we were speaking (elaloumen) to the (tais) females (gunaixin) having come together (sunelthousais).


Luke says, "the day of the sabbath days", explicitly in regard to the importance of the seventh day in the seven-day weekly cycle.  Of the seven days of the weekly cycle the seventh day, the sabbath day, was the most import day.  It was 'the day" of all of the other days of the weekly cycle.


At that time in history their twenty-four hour daily cycle, which we call a "day", began at what we know as our 6 PM in the evening.  And so the first twelve-hour period of their daily cycle was, for the most part, dark; while the second twelve-hour period of their daily cycle was, for the most part, light. 


In the holy scriptures, in the Greek texts of the NT, we can see that in the culture of those people they made a clear distinction about their twenty-four hour periods as having two, more or less equal parts.  The NT writers use two common words, describing two twelve-hour periods of their twenty-four hour daily cycle.  The first twelve-hour period from 6 PM to 6 AM, which was mostly dark (depending somewhat upon the time of the year) was commonly referred to as night (Gk., nux; Mat. 4:2, Mark 13:35).  The second twelve-hour period from 6 AM to 6 PM, which was mostly light (depending somewhat upon the time of the year) was commonly referred to as day (Gk., hēmera; Mat. 12:40, Acts 2:15). 


In Acts 2:15 Luke's record of what apostle Peter said helps us understand a little more about how they commonly spoke about specific times of both their night and day twelve-hour periods.  Apostle Peter spoke of what is our 9 AM as their "third hour of the 'day'".  Since their "day" period began at 6 AM, three hours later would be 9 AM.  Therefore their sixth-hour of the "day" would be 12 PM, and their ninth-hour of the "day" would be 3 PM, which time of "day", shortly thereafter, Jesus Christ died (Mat. 27:46-50). 


In Mark 13:35 Jesus Christ mentions the various four watches into which night was dividedThis division was based upon the times during a night when Roman soldiers and guards commonly would try to stay up and try to stay alert, watching for any occurrences of undesirable activity and alert others of its presence. 


First watch, the late evening (Gk., opse) watch;

second watch, the midnight (Gk., mesonuktion) watch;

third watch, the cock-sound (Gk., alektorophōnia) watch;

fourth watch, the early (Gk., prōi) watch.


James M. Freeman, in his book titled, "Manner and Customs of the Bible", describes the four nightly watches:


"After the Jews became subject to the Roman power they adopted the Roman method of dividing the watches.  These watches were four: the first being from sunset to three hours later; the second from this time to midnight; the third from midnight to three hours before sunrise; and the fourth from this time until sunrise."


See also Mat. 14:25, 24:43; Mark 6:48; Luke 12:38 for references to watches.



4597 - moth (sēs, noun) - Of Hebrew origin.


If the disciple’s question to Jesus, in Mat. 24:3, which may have been based upon what Jesus said to them immediately prior to their question, in Mat. 23:29-39, is about the fathers of the religious leaders and their children pursuing after the prophets and the righteous ones to kill them, then is the disciple’s question in Mat. 24:3 related to prophecies of Abraham’s two sons, Ishmael and Isaac, whose son Ishmael, the one in slavery, pursued after the holy one to kill him (Gal. 4:29)?  This takes us to Gal. 4:22-31, and especially to the Isa. 51 prophecy where the speaker is apparently speaking to the children of Abraham and Sarah (v2), to “stones” which are of the “rock” in v1.  This indicates to me that the speaker is speaking to the children of Abraham and Sarah through Isaac, through God’s promise to them.  This lineage produced the “free children” which is a metaphor (according to Paul in Gal. 4) for all those who believe upon the name of Jesus, who have been made free from the bondage to sin and death.  These are the ones who have believed, of whom Abraham is their father.


If the context of Mat. 23:29-39 is about Abraham’s children, the father of the fathers of the religious leaders, whose fathers pursued after and killed the prophets and the righteous ones, then are those things in Mat. 23:29-39 “these things” in Mat. 24:3, about which the disciples ask Jesus?  And they ask about the sign of the presence of… “moth” or “of you”, depending upon whether one believes sēs is a noun or a pronoun, and the complete coming together of the present age.  Isn’t Isa. 51 about the completion of the present age, about the returning of the redeemed of the Lord God to Zion, with singing (Isa. 51:11)?  If the disciples are asking Jesus when is the pursuit of, and the killing of, the righteous ones going to end, it is in Isa. 51:8 that the speaker says the moth “shall eat them up like a garment” together with a reference to the end of that age.  So far, the contexts of Mat. 23:29-39, Gal. 4:22-31, and Isa. 51, indicate to me that sēs in Mat. 24:3 should be considered to be a noun of Hebrew origin.


In Mat. 24:4 Jesus’ answer begins with him talking about the ones pursuing after the prophets and righteous ones to kill them, as now coming deceitfully in the name of him to pursue after and cause all of the present and future righteous ones to wander.


If Jesus’ answer throughout Mat. 24 correlates closely with Isa. 51:6-8, speaking of the vanishing away of the heavens and of the earth waxing old, which is associated closely with the return of Jesus for his one body, and then with his one body, which is part of the apparent context of Mat. 24, then I’m dissuaded that sēs is a pronoun in Mat. 24:3, as some/most/all scholars may believe.  


This word presented a difficult enigma to me when I first came across it, on account of Isa. 51, which subject matter directly precedes the subject matter of the infamous Isa. 52 and 53 chapters, and the context of James 5:1-8 also, noticing the word sētobrōta, “moth-eaten” in verse 2, and the “presence of the Lord” in verses 7-8.  We can see Jesus’ parabolic usages of “moth” in Mat. 6:19-20, and Luke 12:33 as well.


If Isa. 51 is a quote of the God speaking, and if he is speaking to the children of Abraham and Sarah, Abraham being the father of all those who believe (Rom. 4:11), then is God speaking to the lineage of Abraham through his son Ishmael, the one born into bondage of the slave girl Hagar, or is God speaking to the lineage of Abraham through his son Isaac, the one born into freedom of Sarah, Abraham’s wife, born through the promise of God (Gal. 4:22-31)? 


If God is speaking to the lineage of Abraham through his son Isaac, then this chapter 51 of Isaiah is God speaking to all of those who believe after Abraham’s example, which ones are the partakers of God’s new covenant in Jesus’ blood, and not the ones who crucified Jesus, who are the sons of the ones who killed all the prophets and righteous ones.  If God is speaking to Abraham’s sons through Isaac then God is speaking to the metaphorical new Israel, the new heavenly Jerusalem, Mt. Zion, the “mountain” of God, i.e., the one body of Christ in this present age, which is under God’s new covenant in Jesus’ shed blood, about which shed blood Isa. chapters 52 and 53 speak.


As you may know, the Word which became flesh (John 1:14) existed as a spirit-based being called the Word (Prov. 8:22-31; Dan. 3:25-28; John 1:1-2, 14, 30, 3:13, 31, 6:33, 50-51, 62, 8:23-26, 58, 13:3, 16:27-30, 17:5-8, 24; Rom. 8:29; 1 Cor. 10:4, 15:47; Gal. 4:1-5; Eph. 4:8-10, Phil. 2:6; Col. 1:15; Heb. 1:4-6, 3:2; 1 Pet. 1:20; 1 John 1:2; Rev. 3:14), previous to when it became flesh, and was then called Jesus. 


Various writers of the new covenant texts tell us about Jesus’ spirit-based pre-existence, that the Word was [the] firstborn (prōtotokos) [son, v13, RE] of all of creation (Col. 1:15; Heb. 1:4-6). 


Various writers of the biblical texts tell us also that the God then instrumentally used his firstborn creation, the Word, to subsequently form, make, and create the present heavens and earth and all things therein (John 1:3, 10; Col. 1:16-17; Heb. 1:2).


It seems to me to be not only plausible, but logical, that in the completion of the age Jesus speaks of in Mat. 24, that the ascended Christ Jesus, in his heavenly ministry, should again be called upon by God to use him instrumentally to create the new coming heavens and earth, which present ones shall be dissolved out of necessity.


In the beginning God worked with the Word, in its spirit-based existence, to form, make and create the present heavens and earth and all things therein (John 1:3, 10; Col. 1:16-17; Heb. 1:2). 


After the Word became flesh and tented among mortalkind, God still worked with him, working in (en) and through (dia) Jesus for the wholeness of all mortalkind (For God working in and through Jesus, see Mark 6:5; Luke 5:17; John 3:2, 5:19-20, 8:16, *29, 9:33, *10:38, *14:10-11, 28; Acts 2:22, 10:38; *2 Cor. 5:18-19; Eph. 3:16-19, 4:6; *Col. 1:19-20, 2:9; 1 John 5:20). 


Therefore I conclude that the God shall again instrumentally use the ascended Christ Jesus to create the new heavens and earth at some time in the future.  And since the one body of Christ is the “body” of Christ it shall be instrumentally used also, as it is instrumentally used now to carry out the ministry of reconciliation, speaking the word of reconciliation (2 Cor. 5:18).


Given the textual evidence of Isaiah and James, and elsewhere, through connecting contextual similarities between the prophesied completion of an age, the presence of the Lord, and the presence of the “moth”, I conclude that those writers’ usages of “moth” is a metaphor for Christ Jesus’ role in the God’s specific instrumental usage of him in dissolving and dismantling of the present heavens and earth at some time in the future, before the creation of the new heavens and earth.  This is why this particular usage of sēs in Mat. 24:3 was an enigma to me (and still is somewhat) when I came across it some time ago.  


This is what I believe now, at this moment.  But as I continue to translate my way through the ancient texts of the bible, my ideas, conceptions, and beliefs are still changing more or less, day by day as I go along.  I’m certain I’ll find more evidence to support sēs as either a noun or pronoun, as I continue.



4670 - Sodoms (Sodoma, proper noun) - In Gen. chapters 13, 14, 18, 19 Sodom and Gomorrah appear in translation as distinct individual cities or towns.  However, in the new covenant writings Sodoms always appears in the plural, nine times, and never in the singular.  The plural usages suggest that this word is not intended to refer to a single village or town, but to a whole area of villages and towns, in the valley of Siddim, to which area Gen. 13:12 refers to as the "cities of the valley", among which Lot went to dwell.  The plural usages of Sodoms implies that the new covenant writers, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, apostles Paul and Peter, who wrote about Sodoms, all meant to say that all of the "cities of the valley", not simply Sodom and Gomorrah, were all full of the same kind of sin and evil, which is perhaps why Jehovah destroyed them all (Gen. 19:28-29).


For Sodoms references see Mat. 10:15, 11:23-24; Luke 10:12, 17:29; Rom. 9:29; 2 Pet. 2:6; Jude 1:7; Rev. 11:8


Gomorrahs, in the new covenant writings, is in the plural in three out of four usages.  Its only singular usage, in 2 Pet. 2:6, appears to be a textual spelling error since it is not in the genitive, neuter, plural as is Sodoms which precedes it in the same sentence.


For Gomorrahs references see Mat. 10:15, Rom. 9:29; *2 Pet. 2:6; Jude 1:7.



4698 - spleens (splanchnon, noun) - There was an earlier belief that the spleen was the seat of certain negative emotions, such as bad temper, malice and spite.  But in the writings of the Greek biblical texts, which reflect Christian belief from about two thousand years ago, the biblical writers used it about only caring emotions, such as love, compassion and sympathy. 


Apparently the ancient idiomatic meaning of splanchnon referenced a collection of internal organs including the spleen, but not simply the spleen individually, since our bodies hold only one spleen and splanchnon is always in the plural in the text. 


In Luke 1:78, Phil. 2:1, Col. 3:12 and 1 John 3:17 the idiom attributes the emotion, attitude and subjective response of mercy to the spleens, which may be its general and primary figurative meaning.  In 2 Cor. 7:15 apostle Paul uses splanchna as a synonym to the graciousness and/or thankfulness of Titus for the reception given to him by the Corinthian believers.  In Philemon 1:7 and 20 apostle Paul speaks of spleens as the source of one's energy and determination, which need to be "refreshed", as though they were the source of his strength and ability to show forth the grace of God given to him (v20), and to the spleens of the holy ones needing refreshing as well (v7).  Splanchnon is used 11 times in the text.  The meanings in the contexts, taken as a whole, imply that showing mercy, or any grace of God which comes forth out of the spleens, requires strength, and is physically and mentally draining.  A close common idiom in our English cultures may be seen in the use of our word gut, such as in, "I haven't the guts to go through with it", or "He sure has guts", or "I can feel it in my guts", or "My gut feeling tells me that...", and so on.


In Eph. 4:32 apostle Paul uses "well-spleened (eusplagchnoi)", as well as does apostle Peter in 1 Pet. 3:8.  Our equivalent Western idiom is tender-hearted.  To have good will toward one another, Luke 2:14.


"Bowels" is a translation used in modern versions to refer to intestines and other entrails (Acts 1:18).  In the KJV "bowels" is also used to refer to the sexual reproductive system (2 Sam. 16:11; Ps. 71:6) and, figuratively, to strong emotions (Job 30:27), especially love (Song 5:4) and compassion (Col. 3:12).  Both Hebrew and Greek picture the entrails as the center of human emotions and excitement." 2



4722 - to cover (stegō, verb) - 1 Cor. 9 and 1 Thes. 3 supply the contexts in which three of the four usages of stegō are used in the texts, in which contexts the idiomatic meaning of stegō can be determined.  In both contexts apostle Paul speaks of running out of supplies and resources to finance and feed himself and the ones traveling with him.  During apostle Paul's itineraries he and his group had to pay for traveling costs, food and lodging costs, and tariffs, taxes and fees.  Apostle Paul's usage of stegō, I believe, is idiomatic, meaning "to cover their costs", specifically their traveling, food and lodging, and various taxes, tariffs and fees costs.


Traveling costs may have included ship fares, and baggage handling and storage costs.  From the evidence in the holy scriptures apostle Paul did a fair amount of travel by boat throughout the Mediterranean Sea.  If Paul and his groups traveled with their own animals such as camels, bison, oxen, to both ride and to use to pull carts filled with their sacred scrolls, food, clothing, and miscellaneous supplies, perhaps his own tent-making materials, tools and equipment, then the animals would have needed to be fed and watered also.  If they traveled with caravans then they may have needed to pay for the assistance and protections offered by a caravan. 


Food and lodging costs may have been incurred in places where they couldn't stay with fellow believers who could put them up for a few nights and help feed them.  If while on the road inclement weather arose, they may have needed to pay for lodging and shelter from storms. 


Tariffs, taxes and fees costs were paid for traveling in and through various countries and provinces where tolls, load taxes and termination taxes were charged.  These kinds of charges were incurred at the entrances into countries, states, provinces, and at city gates, the entrances into cities being where termination taxes were commonly charged. 


In Mat. 17:24-27 as Jesus Christ and his disciples come into Capernaum from some place far off, the ones taking the double drachma (didrachma) confronted Peter to ask him if his teacher (Jesus) pays a termination tax (telei), the double drachma.  At sometime later Peter found a coin in the mouth of a fish, which they used to pay the termination tax for their entrance into Capernaum.


In 1 Cor. 9:12, at this time in the history of his itineraries, apostle Paul emphatically states, using the emphatic particle of negation ou, that he and those with him cover their own costs of all things, in order that they may not give any interruption to the movement of the evangelism of Christ.  After Paul's long argument that it may well be in agreement with the holy scriptures for he and those with him to personally use the money, food, and goods, given to him on behalf of the ministry, for their personal needs (1 Cor. 9:1-12a ).  In 1 Cor. 9:12b Paul states emphatically that they absolutely did not use their position and authority as ministers of the evangelism to eat and drink the donations, but that they cover all of their own personal costs for themselves.  They paid their own way when they traveled.  And they kept the food, drink, money, and other goods donated to the move of the evangelism of Christ to give to other believers who had needs, in order that they may not hinder or give any interruption to the movement of the evangelism of Christ through their own use and depletion of those goods (1 Cor. 9:12c).


Apostle Paul is somewhat proud of how he and the others have been and are stewarding the goods donated to the ministry, and strongly believes he is entitled to boast about this as a highlight of the quality of his conduct of the ministry under his charge, and boast over his own personal sacrifice in his ministry to the Lord Christ Jesus (1 Cor. 9:15c-16a), given his own history.  Again in 1 Cor. 9:15a apostle Paul boasts of his proud stewardship over the goods given to the ministry, that he has absolutely not used absolutely not one of those things for his own personal needs.


In 1 Cor. 9:18 apostle Paul says that he doesn't place the evangelism out there and then expect people to literally pay back him and the others, to financially reimburse them for their personal travel costs and expenses incurred in bringing the evangelism to them.  Jesus taught his disciples that since we have received gratuitously we should give gratuitously (Mat. 10:8), giving of our love, giving out of our knowledge of the Word of God, and giving without charge out of all of the other gracious things God has given to us, to those who are hungering and thirsting for righteousness.  Apostle Paul doesn't wish to interrupt the flow of the evangelism getting to people's ears through their not be able to afford to (1 Cor. 9:12).


In 1 Cor. 9:19-23 Paul says his goal is to make as many whole (V19, 22) as he possibly can.  In 1 Cor. 9 Paul explains how he and others with him did everything they could possibly do to help others believe in the evangelism of Christ, especially about placing and disseminating the evangelism completely free of charge to any and all who may wish to hear it.  This is a good lesson for all of those who use God's Word and the evangelism of Christ as a way for their own monetary gain.  Jesus Christ and the apostles didn't charge people for their time.  Apostle Paul now says that from now on he also is not going to charge people to hear God's Word.  This is a huge spiritual Truth and huge reality for apostle Paul to now come to in his ministry.  Contrary to modern "Christianity" in which almost everyone wishes to receive a paycheck of some kind for doing their own personal ministry, Jesus Christ and his apostles and disciples gave virtually everything they had in order that they may gain more to believe the evangelism of Christ.  Those who practice false Christianity want to be paid, in cash, for their time spent helping others, the opposite of giving of themselves freely (Mat. 10:8) to others as Jesus Christ taught his disciples and apostles to do.


In 1 Thes. 3, in the record of apostle Paul and those with him on their way to visiting the believers in the area of Thessalonica, apostle Paul says they ran out of the ability to cover their own personal traveling costs, and they had to stop in Athens (1 Thes. 3:1).  Apparently they still had just enough personal resources to be able to send only Timothy ahead, while Paul and the others with him were left alone in Athens.  The Thessalonian believers were very dear to Paul, and he to them, and he was very anxious to determine exactly still how strong was their belief into the evangelism of Jesus Christ, which true evangelism they had taught them.  Paul says that through the reason that he could no longer cover his own personal traveling costs, Timothy alone was sent ahead to verify if Paul and company's previous witnessing and labor into the Thessalonian believers was not done in vain (1 Thes. 3:5).  Paul indicates in the context that the traveling costs which they were now experiencing were causing them to face associated mental pressures, and they were growing more concerned over the continued movement forward of the evangelism; likewise as Paul was concerned over the interruption of the Evangelism of Christ in his letter to the Corinthian believers after his first visit to them (1 Cor. 9:12c).


In Jerusalem Jesus turned over the tables of the money changers in the temple (Mat. 21:12-13; Luke 19:45-46).  He/we, his one body, have much more work to do today in modern "Christianity".  For more on this subject matter, for Jesus’ sent ones to preach and teach the Kingdom of the Heavens, i.e., the Word of Reconciliation, i.e. the evangelism of Christ, gratuitously, free of charge, see Mat. 10:8; Luke 7:21-22, 41-43; Rom. 3:24, 8:32; 1 Cor. 2:12; 2 Cor. 11:7; 3 John 1:7; Rev. 21:6, 22:17.


See 2655 - I was a burden (katenarkaō, verb) - An idiom meaning to be caused to severely lack.



4797 - to pour in together with (sugcheō, verb) - A colloquialism of Luke, used to describe people thoroughly mixing in with one another.  See Acts 2:6, 9:22, 19:32, 21:27, 31.



4811 - be fig informers (sukophantēsēte, verb) - An idiom of Luke, used to refer to those who use false pretence.  In Luke 3:14 Luke quotes Jesus giving soldiers instructions on how to become more righteous in their own personal conduct.  Jesus used a colloquialism, thoroughly shake, and an idiom, be fig informers, back-to-back to put emphasis upon the importance of what he was saying to them. 


The popular scholar, Spiros A. Zodhiates, gives us a little history on the origin of this idiom:


“To inform against, accuse falsely, calumniate.  Literally a fig informer, one who watched and informed against persons who, contrary to law, exported figs from Athens.  During a time of dearth in Athens, when provisions were scarce, a law was enacted that no figs should be exported out of Attica, the region where Athens is located.  This law was not repealed even when a plentiful harvest made the law meaningless and gave occasion for some to accuse those who were caught transgressing the letter of the law.  These accusers were called sukophántai, accusers of fig trafficking (or as we say in Eng. "sycophants").  By implication, meaning to extort by false accusation, totally defraud (Luke 3:14; 19:8; Sept.: Job 35:9; Ps. 119:122; Prov. 22:16).”  (Zodhiates, Spiros A.. The Complete Word Study Dictionary: New Testament. Chattanooga: AMG International, Rev. 1993)


Jesus' idiomatic reference to the soldiers, whether Roman soldiers or temple guards, as fig informers, was not intended to encourage them to break the law by not informing on people who were breaking the law, since illegally exporting figs was a law of another nation entirely, Greece.  But the idiom from Greece apparently became used in Israel for those, including soldiers, who used lies and false pretense, and perhaps threats, to unjustly extort money and goods from people who were not breaking laws they may have been accused of breaking.  This manipulation of people using lies and threats, to extort from them their money and goods, thereby characterized the money and/or goods obtained as "hush money".  Without doubt, for those who were breaking laws of some kind, paying hush money was simply a part of doing business.


Luke quotes Zacchaeus also using this word (Luke 19:8).


See 1286, thoroughly shake.



4813 - I stripped (sulaō , verb) - A idiom meaning to rob.  In 2 Cor. 11:8 of apostle Paul writing to the Corinthian believers about his first visit to them on his second itinerary, he sounds angry with himself that on that trip he had to take emergency assistance from the Macedonian believers, after meeting them and preaching to them for only the first time.  Paul says he had to accept rations from them so he could continue on his way to visit and preach to them, the Corinthian believers.  In Jesus' parable he gives us a vivid description of what it means to be "stripped" (Luke 10:30). 


Throughout all of Paul's letters he emphatically declares that he and others with him, and as all believers should do, both leaders and followers, he and they worked with their own hands for the necessary things they needed for their own personal needs, food, clothing and shelter (Acts 8:9-24, 18:1-3, 20:33-35; 1 Cor. 4:12, 9:1-25; 2 Cor. 2:17, 12:14-17; Eph. 4:28; 1 Thes. 4:9-12; 2 Thes. 3:6-14; Titus 3:14; 1 Pet. 1:14-19).  Paul and others emphatically preached and taught that this is the standard of self-sufficiency, through walking by belief in God's great and precious promises he has given to us (2 Pet. 1:4; 2 Tim. 3:16-17) under his new covenant in Jesus' shed blood; which walking in belief and in Spirit all believers should imitate (1 Cor. 4:16, 11:1; Eph. 5:1; Phil. 3:17; 1 Thes. 1:6, 2:14; 2 Thes. 3:7-9; Heb. *6:12, 13:7; 1 Pet. 3:13; 3 John 1:11), and through which walk of belief a believing disciple of Christ may "grow up into a complete male, into [the] measure of the fullness of maturity of the Christ" (Eph. 4:11-13).



4815 - to take together with, to be taken together with (sullambanō, verb) - A colloquialism describing something taking effect together with something else

In Luke 1:31 the messenger Gabriel told Mariam, the mother of Jesus Christ, that "you shall take together in belly", i.e., you shall become pregnant with a child.  The idiom is very similar to our many English "take" idioms, especially like our take effect idiom, as used in applying medications; "has the medication taken affect yet?", and in expressing the condition of someone who has been taken ill.  But take together, used in Luke 1:36 as well, expresses both the affect (take) and the effect produced (together), i.e., "she has taken together a son". See also Luke 1:24, 31, 36, 2:21; James 1:15.



4819 - walking together with (sumbainō, verb) - This is an ancient Hebrew colloquialism (Jer. 6:28, 9:4).


In one of its usages this colloquialism is used to express an association and relationship between a person and his own behaviors, to which he is apparently blind, those behaviors being as estranged and unwelcome companions walking together with him. 


In 1 Cor. 10:11 the colloquialism points out the behaviors of some of the children of Israel in the wilderness of the exodus, as if their behavior was estranged from them, and disassociated from the events it caused to occur to them in their lives; as if their behavior, and the events it was causing, were out of their own hands to control.  Their behaviors which were "walking together with" them resulted from them lusting over malicious things.  Their behaviors were idolatry (1 Cor. 10:7a), impious "play" (1 Cor. 10:7b), fornication (1 Cor. 10:8), testing-out the patience of Christ (1 Cor. 10:9), and murmuring (1 Cor. 10:10); as if these behaviors were out of their own control, self-animated, and had a life of their own.  Apostle Paul states that on account of these behaviors they caused themselves to be destroyed under the "serpents" (1 Cor. 10:9), meaning demon spirits, and under the "ruiner", a reference to a common behavior characteristic of the devil, of whom Jesus referred to as a mortal-killer (John 8:44).


The colloquialism is used also to refer to the unwelcome knowledge, understanding, and realization of certain facts or truths which one must carry along with him in his own mind; the realization of which being as an estranged and unwelcome companion walking together with him, causing him to be depressed and dejected.  Jesus' heartache of the state of mortalkind, and his thoughts of his upcoming torture, staking and death, was the true cross which Jesus carried.  Those thoughts walked together with him wherever he went.


In Acts 3:10, in the record of the lame man who received healing with the assistance of apostles Peter and John, the people who were witnessing the healing of him and subsequently his own jumping for joy, literally, were in awe and ecstasy over the walkers (feet) of him, and the ankles, having walked together with him.  The man's feet and ankles were now functional, somehow.  The colloquialism points out the fact that the lame man wasn't simply trying to hobble around a little on to non-functional fleshly stumps for feet, but that the man's feet and ankles miraculously became fully functional, enough for him to literally jump around for joy.


Under the old covenant of the Mosaic law, any animal which was lame, or blind, or had any serious blemish of any kind was not acceptable to God to be used as a sacrifice (Deut. 15:21; Mal. 1:8).  For this reason many people looked down upon those who were lame, blind, or who had any serious blemish, as ones being unacceptable to God. And subsequently many of those who had serious blemishes believed they were not acceptable to God in his sight, and were being punished by God for some reason.  There has always been, and there shall always be, those among us who the devil has managed to get them to buy into a reason or reasons to hate others; ones who run egomaniacal soap operas through their own minds about how and why they are better and more acceptable to God than others who have supposed blemishes. 


When Jesus Christ came he showed all that those kinds of beliefs were devilish lies.  And he, with God in him working in and through him (Mark 6:5; Luke 5:17; John 3:2, 5:19-20, 8:16, *29, 9:33, *10:38, *14:10-11, 28; Acts 10:38; *2 Cor. 5:18-19; Eph. 3:16-19, 4:6; *Col. 1:19-20, 2:9; 1 John 5:20), went around healing all those who were lame, blind, sick, and who had a physically or mentally debilitating blemish of any kind, showing they were the ones who believed God's Word and therefore deserved to receive God's favor.  Their healing was based upon the condition that they believe in Jesus' name, and that God, through him, desired for them to be healed (Isa. 53:5; 1 Pet. 2:24; James 5:14-16).  After the children of Israel's estrangement from God which lasted about 400 years, God working for them again, this time in and through Jesus Christ, began to turn the tide of unbelief and convince them all that he loved them, and he desired them all to be healed.  According to God's Word, people who have a heart of unbelief walking together with them are carrying the greatest blemish of all.



4849 - table-groups (sumposion, noun) - Only Mark uses this word.  Vincent appears to have a good explanation of the meaning of this word:


"The Jewish dining-room was arranged like the Roman: three tables forming three sides of a square, and with divans or couches following the outside line of the tables. The open end of the square admitted the servants who waited at table. This explains the arrangement of the multitude here described by Mark. The people sat down, literally, in table-companies, arranged like guests at table; some companies of a hundred and some of fifty, in squares or oblongs open at one end, so that the disciples could pass along the inside and distribute the loaves." -- Vincent's Word Studies In The New Testament



4873 - to lie up together with (sunanakeimai, verb) - This is one of the various words used in the new covenant texts to describe one of the various customary postures taken while eating, two thousand years ago in the Middle East.  This is a reference to the custom of lying on one's side while eating.  See also 345, 347 and 2621.



4912 - I am held together (sunechō, verb) - This is a colloquial way of apostle Paul saying "I am able to hold up, to hold out, to keep it together" in spite of the daily challenges which worked against him and produced almost unbearable mental pressures.  This may be a reference to God's gift of holy Spirit working in Paul.  Apostle Paul was in constant spiritual battle in his efforts to push and move forward the Ministry of Reconciliation (2 Cor. 5:18-19) to other ethnic groups, to preach the Word of God and the knowledge of the great Mystery (Mark 4:11; Rom. 11:25, 16:25; 1 Cor. 2:7; Eph. 1:9, 5:32, 6:18; Col. 1:26-27, 2:2, 4:3; Rev. 10:7) which Christ Jesus taught him, and for which he called him to preach (Gal. 1:12; Eph. 3:3-4).


In Phil. 1:23-24 apostle Paul appears to state two contradictory things, only one of which kept him motivated to carry on.  Paul's desire to do either of them must have been great, since he uses the word "lust" (epithumian) to describe his level of desire for either of them.  He tells the believers in Philippi that he lusts to be with Christ, and that he lusts (LIT, ellipsis) to stay in his present position and ministry for the sake of them, which he resolves to do.


In Luke 12:50-51 Christ Jesus uses this same colloquialism to rhetorically ask his disciple, "how am I held together until which things may be completed?", speaking of his fulfillment of all of the ancient prophecies of him, and then facing his own baptism in death on the stake.  How can our Lord Christ Jesus stay motivated to keep on going toward becoming the sacrificial lamb for us?  The simple answer is Jesus kept on going out of his love for his heavenly Father, and for us.


Please see apostle Paul's usage of anexikakos (Strong's # 420), able to hold up against evil (2 Tim. 2:24), and his usages of anechō (Strong's # 430):


Heb. 13:22 (LIT/UBS4) ...cause yourselves to hold up (anechesthe) the (tou) Word (logou) of the (tēs) consolation (paraklēseōs);


2 Thes. 1:4 (LIT/UBS4) And so (hōste) we (hēmas) ourselves (autous) are caused to boast (enkauchasthai) in (en) you (humin) among (en) the (tais) assembly (ekklēsiais) of the (tou) God (theou), over (huper) the (tēs) endurance (hupomonēs) of you (humōn), and (kai) belief (pisteōs) of you (humōn), among (en) all (pasin) the (tois) pursuits (diōgmois) and (kai) the (tais) mental pressures (thlipsesin) [under] which (ais) you cause yourselves to hold up (anechesthe);


See also Mat. 17:17; Mark 9:19; Luke 9:41; Acts 18:14; 1 Cor. 4:12; 2 Cor. 11:1, 4, ,11, 19-20; Eph. 4:2; Col. 3:13; 2 Thes. 1:4; 2 Tim. 4:3.



4920 - to put [it] together (suniēmi, verb) - A colloquialism equal in meaning to our modern saying, "to connect the dots." The colloquialism expresses one's assumption that certain conditions or facts, predicating one's or others' actions, are obvious to all; but to which, in reality, they may not be so obvious.



4925 - are being built together [into] a domed-roof house (sunoikodomeō, verb) - See 3618.



4932 - cutting [it] together (suntemnō, verb) - In Rom. 9:28 apostle Paul describes God cutting together his Word with all the ethnic groups over the whole land, i.e. in the whole world, according to the prophecies of Isaiah (Isa. 10:22-23) and Hosea (Hos. 1:10) and others in God's Word.  In Rom. 9:22-30 apostle Paul makes a reference to the seed of Abraham being more than simply all those who are the seed of Abraham according to the flesh, but to all those who believe God's Word as Abraham believed it, who is now referred to as the father of all those who believe (Rom. 4:11, 16).  According to God's Word, on account of the belief in their hearts upon the name of Jesus is how those of all ethnic groups on the face of the earth are considered by God to be the spiritual "seed" of Abraham, the new "Israel" (Rom. 9:3-7, 33; 1 Cor. 10:18), which is the one body of Christ, the prophesied new holy place of God, the one not made with mortal's hands, but by God's own hand (Exod. 15:7, 25:22; Isa. 66:1-2; Acts 7:47-50, 17:24; Heb. 8:2).  These are the only ones who can participate in God's new covenant in Jesus' shed blood.


In God's Word covenants are "cut" between God and those with which he chooses to have a covenant (Gen. 15; Jer. 34:18-19).  In Hebrew the word covenant is translated from berîyth, (Strong's # 1285), which is derived from a root which means "to cut".  In this sense apostle Paul's colloquialism "cutting [it] together" means cutting a covenant together with all the other ethnic groups, which covenant will be according to God's Word (Gen. 17:19 Abraham's "seed" after him; 2 Sam. 7; 1 Chron. 17:11-14; 2 Chron. 6:16, 21:7; Psalm 89:3, 111:9; Isa. 27:9, 59:20-21; *Jer. 31:31-33; Ezek. 37:26; Mal. 3:1; Acts 10:43; Rom. 4:13-18, 9:7-8, 11:26-27; Gal. 3:16, 29; ).  See Rom. 9:4, in the same passage, which sets the context of God dealing with his people based upon a covenant.  Apostle Paul's reference is to God cutting his new covenant in Jesus' shed blood with all ethnic groups on the face of the earth.


These prophecies in Isaiah and Hosea, along with many others, of God's coming new covenant which would be cut with all ethnic groups on the face of the earth, were called a great mystery (Mark 4:11; Rom. 16:25; 1 Cor. 2:7; Eph. 1:9, 3:3-4, 9, 5:32, 6:19; Col. 1:26-27, 2:2, 4:3; 1 Tim. 3:16), because all could read them, but there was not enough prophetic revelation given during the time of the old covenant for anyone to be able to put them all together to determine what they meant.  These were all prophecies of the coming one body of Christ under God's promised new covenant, which body would have only one head (Hos. 1:11), Christ Jesus, which one body would begin to come together on that great day of Pentecost and thereafter, recorded in Acts 2.


By the way, in Rom. 9:28, look at what apostle Paul says about God's prophetic Word, "[the] Word (logon) being complete altogether (suntelōn)".  Why does he say that God's Word is now altogether complete?  It's because God's promised coming redeemer (Gen. 3:15) has finally come, and he has fulfilled all of the prophecies about him.  And because Christ Jesus has done that all of the other prophecies in God's Word which have not yet to come to pass can now come to pass!  All things of God's plan for his creation, which are prophesied in God's Word, can now be completed on account of what Christ Jesus has done!  The proof of the truth and veracity of God's Word is proven over and over throughout the entire timeline of the history of God's creation as all of the prophecies come to pass.  All creation is now poised to witness the last few prophecies yet to come to pass, here in these last days.


Since God's Word is "being complete altogether (suntelōn)', especially the parts about the coming redeemer, the great mystery, the mystery of Godliness and the Christology of Christ, there is no need for a mortal-made theological invention to come along in the fourth century to be appended to God's Word, as though the revealed Word of God to his prophets and to Christ's apostles was in error and needed to be "fixed".  Those who the God is not teaching (John 6:45; 1 Thes. 4:9) need a "patch" or a "fix" to try to put it together (suniēmi, Strong's # 4920) for them, and explain it to them, which alternate "orthodox" most all "Christianity" follows today.  They need to heed Christ's warning (Mat. 7:13-14, 21-23).



4972 - stamped (sphragizō, verb) - This is the process of putting an identifying mark on something.  The stamped mark identifies the very close association between the thing stamped and the one stamping it, and especially the identity, power and authority of the one stamping it.



4982 - made/make whole (sōsō, verb) - This verb is used generally in the sense of restoring someone or something back into it's original or intended condition of health and wholeness.  It is used in the sense of keeping whole a mortal from sickness, disease or loss of life, and in making whole a person, where their physical and/or mental health is restored from sickness, disease, and demonic possession.  The word is used in the sense also of adding a new part to the makeup of a mortal's being; adding the gift of holy Spirit into a mortal's being through the new birth above, to a sin nature-based mortal's precondition of possessing only a body and soul (1 Thes. 5:23).  This becomes the most prevalent meaning of most all the usages of sōsō in the book of Acts and subsequent new covenant writings. 


A sin nature-based mortal without the Spirit from above apostle Paul refers to as a soul-based mortal, and as being in the flesh (Rom. 7:5, 8:1-17; 1 Cor. 2:14).  Flesh and blood alone, without the addition of holy Spirit in a mortal, cannot inherit the Kingdom of God (1 Cor. 15:50).  According to God's Word, their is a foundational requirement any mortal must fulfill to receive anything from God, especially to be made whole, and that requirement is to BELIEVE God's Word (Heb. 11:6), because without belief it is impossible to please God.  It is belief in God's Word in the heart of a mortal, and thereby it is through that belief a mortal can become righteous in God's eyes.  Therefore, to be kept whole or be made whole by God requires belief that God is willing, able and desires to keep or make you whole, which he is always (3 John 1:2). 


In the immediate context of the abundance of usages of sōsō in the new covenant writings, it is made plainly clear that belief is required to receive wholeness, whether to be kept whole or to be made whole from physical diseases and illnesses, or to be made whole spiritually from eternal destruction, through receiving the new birth above, the gift of holy Spirit.  


In Mark 5:22-24, one of the leaders of the synagogue name Jairus, confessing with his mouth what he believes in his heart, and acting upon his belief by coming to Jesus, receives his little daughter made whole (sōthē).


In Mat. 9 and Mark 5, about a female who was hemorrhaging blood for twelve years, she believed in her heart that God wanted her to be healed, and that Jesus Christ was God's provision for her healing, and that if she stated and acted (Mark 5:28) upon that belief she would be healed and become whole again. 


In Mat. 9:22 Jesus said, “Have courage (tharsei) daughter (thugator), the (hē) belief (pistis) of you (sou) has made you whole (sesōken se)!”


In Mat. 14 Jesus had to stretch out his hand to Peter to keep him whole (sōson), i.e., to preserve his life from possibly drowning, because Peter's level of belief was too little (oligopiste, i.e. one of little belief) to sustain him walking upon the water to Jesus.  


In Mat. 8:10 the centurion had so much (tosautēn) belief (pistin) for his child (Gk. pais) to receive healing.


In Mat. 15:21-28, a Cannanite gentile woman demonstrates great (megalē) belief (pistis) to Jesus (Mat. 15:22) to receive healing for her daughter. 


In Mark 10 a blind man has enough belief to be made whole (sesōken) and receive his eye sight (Mark 10:46-52).


In Mat. 27:42, in a record where Jesus is hanging upon the stake, the chief priests stroll by and mock him through saying, "“He made others whole (allous esōsen)!


He can absolutely not inherently power himself (ou dunatai) to keep himself whole (heauton sōsai)!"


In Mat. 1:21, in a dream, a messenger prophesied to Joseph that through holy Spirit a child has been generated in Mariam, a child who shall make whole (sōsei) the people of him, i.e., those among the seed of Abraham who shall believe in the name of Jesus (Rom. 10:9-10).


In Luke 6:9 Jesus states that the opposite of being made whole (esōsen), which opposite is the default ongoing sinful condition of mortalkind, is loss (apolesai, verb, Strong's # 622, to lose, or to destroy).  Jesus most often uses this word to imply the concept of gain versus loss.  This is a much deeper concept than one's mere destruction, since it reflects the heart of the issue over the value of the booty for which spiritual warfare is fought, over a believer's eternal gain versus eternal loss; eternal life and being a full-sharer with Christ of God's inheritance, or nothing!


In Luke 8:12, Jesus, in his parable, describes how that after mortals have heard God's Word that the devil comes and takes up God's Word out of their hearts so that they may not be able to believe, and therefore they may not be able to be made whole (sōthōsin).  I believe this verse refers to being made or kept whole from destruction through either receiving physical and mental healing and/or receiving the new birth above, the gift of holy Spirit, the new birth above. 


In Luke 8:26-39 Jesus delivers a mortal from possession by demon spirits, and he was made whole (esōthē) (Luke 8:36).


See also Luke 8:50, 9:56, 17:19, 18:26; John 3:17, 5:34, 10:9, 12:47; Acts 2;21, 2:40 (keep yourselves whole from defilement), 2:47 (receive the new birth above, holy Spirit), 4:12, 11:14, 16:30-31; Rom. 5:10, 10:9-10; 1 Cor. 1:21; Eph. 2:8; 1 Tim. 2:4; 2 Tim. 4:18; Titus 3:5; James 1:21, 5:15.



4990 - Savior, savior (sōtēr, noun) - The meaning of sōtēr is one who makes whole.  In the Greek texts of the new testament of the Bible the writers wrote about our heavenly Father, the one true God, and his son Christ Jesus, as both being our saviors. 


If we read the texts carefully, within the contexts of all of this word's usages, and in other passages related to our wholeness/salvation, we can see that the God is our Savior an account of what he has willed to be done in his creation.


The one true God almighty was/is:


• the planner (protithēmi, Rom. 3:25; Eph. 1:9, 3:11) of our wholeness/salvation;


• the determiner (proorizō, John 3:16; Acts 4:28; Rom. 8:29, 30; 1 Cor. 2:7; Eph. 1:5, 11) for our wholeness/salvation;


• the choreographer (chorēgeō, 2 Cor. 9:10, 8-11;


• and the counselor (boulē, Luke 7:29-30; Acts 2:23, 4:28 13:36, 20:27; Eph. 1:11; Heb. 6:17) of us for our wholeness/salvation.


These same biblical writers tell us that Christ Jesus was sent from the God into the cosmos as his instrumental agent to enable us to receive wholeness/salvation (Heb. 5:9), which enablement was the shedding of Christ Jesus' own blood and his subsequent death.  One's belief in the meaning of this is required in order to receive wholeness/salvation (Rom. 10:9-10, et al.).


In all of the following passages the scriptural writers refer to the one true God almighty as our Savior, on account of his planning, determining, choreographing and subsequent counseling of us for our wholeness/salvation (Luke 1:47; Jude 1:25; 1 Tim. 1:1, 2:3, 4:10; Tit. 2:10, 3:4, 6).


In all of these following passages the scriptural writers refer to Christ Jesus as God's sent instrumental agent to enable us to receive our wholeness/salvation (Luke 2:11; John 4:42; Acts 5:31, 13:23; Eph. 5:23; Phil. 3:20; 1 John 4:14; 2 Tim. 1:10; Tit. 1:3, 4, 2:13, Heb. 5:9; 2 Pet. 1:1, 11, 2:20, 3:2, 18).


In the LIT I distinguish the writers' apparent references to the God as our Savior through capitalizing the English word Savior.  When their apparent references are to Christ Jesus as the instrumental agent enabling our wholeness/salvation, then I do not capitalize the English word savior


Most all who pay close attention to what their bibles say, at least what they may say in English, are familiar with Heb. 5:9


Heb. 5:9 (KJV) And being made perfect, he became the author of eternal salvation unto all them that obey him.


Heb. 5:9 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) he having been made complete (teleiōtheis), he caused himself to become (egeneto) [the] enabling one (aitios) of ageless (aiōniou) wholeness (sōtērias) for all (pasin) the ones (tois) obeying (hupakouousin) him (autō);


As anyone can see from reading Heb. 5:9 and noticing the differences between the Trinitarian fudged KJV translation, and the LIT which simply quotes the ancient writers of the Biblical texts, the Trinitarian translation fudges the word author into their translation in place of [the] enabling one (aitios), on account of their private interpretation based upon their predetermined theological theory invented in the 4th century.  They need to fudge the text to present Jesus as the God, Jesus as the author, i.e., the planner, determiner, choreographer and counselor of our wholeness/salvation, instead of recognizing God himself as the planner, determiner, choreographer and counselor our our wholeness/salvation, which ignorance produces idolatry.


How about that word perfect in verse 9?  If Jesus Christ was already the one true God almighty, then how is it that he needed to be made "perfect"?  Did God need to be made perfect?  If so, by whom? 


How about that word made in verse 9?  Can anyone see that word made in the text?  What do you suppose that word means?  When we see the phrases Made in China, or Made in Taiwan, or Made in Italy, we know what the word made means in those phrases, right?  What do you suppose the word made means in Heb. 5:9?



5040 - born ones (teknion, noun) - Teknion gives prominence to the natural fact of birth, of being born; it emphasizes the fact of birth, the cause of existence.  One exists because her or she was first bornTeknion is akin to tiktō, which means "to beget, bear".  Translating teknion as "child, little child, young child" ignores its inherent meaning of birth


There are several kinds of birth events mentioned in God's Word, but the two most often written about are a natural birth, the birth of a mortal out of their mother's belly, and a supernatural birth, which is a birth above in God's gift of his holy Spirit.  This kind of birth is also referred to as a baptism in God's gift of his holy Spirit, from Christ Jesus.  See the record of Jesus teaching this to Nicodemus in John 3.  Teknion signals and prompts the reader to consider his own initial birth event, and whether he wishes to have another, in light of the scriptural subject matters in which teknion is used in the texts.


The essential meanings of the following words are based upon how they are used in the holy scriptures of the Bible.


    435, anēr, male, common noun; denotes the male attribute of gender.

    1025, brephos, a baby, common noun; denotes the unborn or newborn attribute of age.

    1080, gennaō, generated, verb; denotes paternity or maternity.

    1085, genos, genus, common noun; denotes nationality, or family.

    1133, gunaikarion, little female, common noun; denotes the young and female attributes of both age and gender.

    1135, gunē, female, common noun; denotes the female attribute of gender.

    2364, thugatēr, daughter, common noun; denotes the female and product attributes of both gender and progeny.

    2365, thugatrion, little daughter, common noun; denotes the young, female, and product attributes of age, gender, and progeny, respectfully.

    3516, nēpiois, infant, common noun; used mostly figuratively, denotes the quality of childish ignorance.

    3813, paidion, young child, common noun; denotes the young and product attributes of age and progeny.

    3816, pais, child, common noun; denotes the product attribute of progeny.

    4245, presbuteros, elderly, common noun; denotes the old attribute of age.

    5040, teknion, little born one, common noun; denotes the birth event and product attributes of age and progeny.

    5043, teknon, born one, denotes the birth event and product attributes of age and progeny.

    5207, huios, son, common noun; denotes the male and product attributes of both gender and progeny.



5055 - you pay [a] termination tax (teleō, verb) - Teleō is used most often as having a general meaning, meaning simply to complete something. But in at least two usages, telei in Mat. 17:24, and teleite in Rom. 13:6, it has a much more specific meaning, meaning to pay a termination tax. See 5056.



5056 - [a] termination tax (telos, common noun) - The Hellenic word telos has it's essential meaning built into it.  It's meaning appears to come from a compound of two words, tele which means "far off" or "at a distance", and tello which means "a definite point or goal" or "a termination point".   The contexts of the usages of this word as a tax of some kind (Mat. 17:25; Rom. 13:7, 10:4, 6:21-22) support the confluence of these meanings. 


In the various scriptural contexts of telos and all of its closely related grammatical forms (adj. - teleios; nouns -  teleiotēs, teleiōsis, teleiōtēs, teleutēs, telos, telōnēs, telōnion; adverb - teleiōs; verbs - teleioō, teleutaō, teleō) the ancient writers give us scriptural examples and descriptions of transitions coming to an end or completion dimensions of time, space, and process.  In telos' description of time, it refers to a period of time coming to or being at an end or a completion.  In its use as a description of location, it describes arriving at or being at a destination or termination point.  In its description of process, it describes a process coming to or being at a conclusion. 


In Mat. 17:24-27 as Jesus Christ and his disciples come into Capernaum from some place far off, the ones taking the double drachma (didrachma) confronted Peter to ask him if his teacher (Jesus) pays [a] termination tax (telei), the double drachma.  Peter said yes, but apparently they didn't pay the tax at that time.  Verse 27 shows us that at some time latter Jesus told Peter to go throw a hook (go fishing), and in the mouth of the first fish which comes up there shall be a stater.  The weight of a stater was equal to that of an Attic silver coin, which was equal to four Attic silver drachma, which is equal to two double drachma, the amount needed to pay the termination tax for both Jesus and Peter coming into Capernaum.   


From examination of all of the biblical records referencing a termination tax, a termination-tax collector, a termination-tax booth, and the payment of termination tax, a termination-tax charge appears to be closely related to what we now days call a customs fee, or more closely related to a toll charge, a charge to use a road or bridge, which is supposedly charged to pay for the on-going maintenance of roads and bridges. 


In Rom. 10:4 apostle Paul refers to the shed blood and death of Jesus Christ as the termination-tax charge of the law, the tool charge which payment allows anyone, the one believing in the evangelism of Jesus Christ, to enter in into the righteousness of God. The connection of the contexts of Mat. 17:24-27 and Rom. 10:4 through holy Spirit's use of the term termination tax (telos), suggests that the righteousness of God is a metaphor for a city which offers food, shelter, warmth and comfort for weary travelers. And in the same context, Rom. 10:10, apostle Paul then equates the belief in our heart coupled with the confession of our lips as the termination tax, or toll charge, which must be paid to receive wholeness, the new birth above in God's gift of holy Spirit, to enter in into the righteousness of God (Rom. 3:21-22; 2 Cor. 5:21), and into the new covenant in Jesus' blood, and into eternal life!


In Rom. 6:21 and its context, about the works we produced when we were making ourselves slaves to lawlessness and sin, apostle Paul equates those works as the termination tax we paid to enter in into death! But now, we having made ourselves slaves to the God, the belief in our heart in the name of Jesus is the "work" we produce which is the termination tax, or toll charge, we "pay" to enter in into ageless life!


Completion of Time


Mat. 22:24-32 - The seven brother who were all married sequentially to the same woman, all came to the end of their time on earth, and died.


In the contexts of many of the usages of the verb teleutaō the ancient writers use it to state that death has occurred to various people on account of their time has come to an end.


Completion of Location


Of the about 42 usages of the common noun telos, 4 of them (Mat. 17:25; Rom. 13:7, 10:4, 6:21-22) appear to be used to refer to a tax which is charged in relationship to geographic location, especially at entrances into a city, near or at the city's gates.  Therefore the intrinsic meaning of telos, of being at an end or completion, must be translated to be in reference to a tax charged in relationship to the arrival and or departure into and/or from termination points.  The scriptural evidence shows those termination points, the locations of where this certain tax is charged, to be at entrances into cities.  Common termination points, or terminals, in our modern mobile cultures

are national borders, state borders, bus, plane and train terminals, and so on. 


Completion of Process


The adverb form, teleiōs, used by apostle Peter in 1 Pet. 1:13, instructs us to "hope (elpisate) completely (teleiōs)",  to keep on hoping all the way to the end, until we can't possibly hope any more, i.e., until death do us part, to receive ALL of the grace of God being brought to us in the revelation of the knowledge of Jesus Christ.  The use of the adverb here refers to a renewed mind thought process, which happens to occur over time, about which geographic location has nothing to do with our thought process of hoping.  That our hope may be complete, our love may be complete, our knowledge and wisdom may be complete, all refer to thought processes which subsequently manifest themselves in words and actions.


All of the forms of the adjective teleios refer to processes coming to the stage of completion, or they are used as pronominal adjectives to describe something having gone through a process which has brought it to a stage of completion.


Many usages of the common noun teleios describe the coming to completion of various transformational processes of a believer; such as growth in our own self-discipline to both know and follow the various injunctions given to us from both our heavenly Father and his son Christ Jesus, growth in our love of our neighbors, growth in renewing our minds with the knowledge of God's Word, and coming to completion in the growth of our discipleship into the stature of the fullness of the maturity of Christ (Eph. 4:13).



5057 - termination-tax collector (telōnēs, common noun) - This word has been translated as publicans (KJV), tax-gatherers (Darby, YLT), tax-collectors (Rotherham), and so on in many popular translations.  However, telōnēs has a more specific meaning based upon its usages, and the usages of its closely associated words teleōtelos, and  telōnion, which specific meaning of telōnēs is a termination-tax collector. See 5056 above for a definition of a termination tax. 


In Mat. 9, as Jesus was coming out of the city of his own (v1), Nazareth, after publicly healing a paralytic, he saw a termination-tax collector sitting on top of a termination-tax collection booth. The tax collector's name was Matthew (v9). In verse 10 the house in which Jesus stayed is likely that of Matthew, although the text doesn't state this as explicitly as we may like. If so, it stands to reason that Matthew would have all of his fellow termination-tax collectors (v11) over to his house to meet Jesus. This makes Matthew's house the local hot spot in town since this is where Jesus is, along with his disciples. And so now the local Pharisees need to show up at Matthew's house, to peddle whatever influence they can to make their presence felt. Jesus had just publicly healed a paralytic before the eyes of the writers, and the whole town, and then the writers accused Jesus of blasphemy. Now here come the Pharisees to see what they can find concerning Jesus breaking the law, about which they may accuse him:


“Through (dia) what (ti) [reason does, AE] the (ho) teacher (didaskalos) of you (humōn) eat (esthiei) with (meta) termination-tax collectors5057 (telōnōn), and (kai) sinful ones (hamartōlōn)!?” - (LIT/UBS4)


In Mat. 21 Jesus says to the chief sacrificial priests and the elders of the people:


Mat. 21:31 (LIT/UBS4) “Truly (amēn) I say (legō) to you (humin) that (hoti), the (hoi) termination-tax collectors5057 (telōnai) and (kai) the (hai) fornicators (pornai) lead before you (proagousin humas) into (eis) the (tēn) Kingdom932 (basileian) of the (tou) God (theou);


The termination-tax collectors and fornicators believe in Jesus, in who and what he is, and the chief sacrificial priests and elders do not! Through this Jesus relegates the chief sacrificial priests and elders of the people as not mattering at all, as being worthless in helping those over which they insist on serving, and having authority. Jesus relegates them to the position of being no more than actors, phonies. 


In Luke 7:29-30 the termination-tax collectors were made righteous by God, they having "paid" a spiritual termination tax in their hearts of repentance toward God, and belief in their hearts over the sake of the name of Jesus, and subsequently having been water baptized under John. They have entered into the Kingdom of the God. The Kingdom of God is wherever God's will is done (Mat. 6:10; Luke 11:2)!


Where is God's will done first in the life of any believer? In the believer's heart, the believer's mind (Luke 17:21), where the Spirit of God dwells in a believer (1 Cor. 6:19, 14:25), and where the Spirit of Christ dwells in a believer (2 Cor. 13:5; Col. 1:27); out of which come those things a believer thinks, and subsequently says and does (Mat. 12:34, 15:17-18; Luke 6:45); which thoughts and actions are the kind of termination taxes produced which a believer pays to enter in into the righteousness and godliness of God, and into wholeness, and into God's new covenant in Jesus' shed blood, and into the Kingdom of the God, and into the prophesied city (Psalm 107:36, 118:19-23; Isa. 62:8-12; Zech. 8:3; Rev. 21:2), which city is the prophesied true tent of God (Rev. 21:3; Acts 7:43, 43-50; Isa. 66:1-2; Acts 15:16, 7-20; Amos 9:11-12)!



5058 - a termination-tax booth (telōnion, common noun) - See 5057.



5083 - watch (tēreō, verb) - This colloquialism is used in the sense of keeping a close eye on the goal in order to obtain it.  Sometimes people say to us, "You better watch yourself", when we are preparing to go into an unsafe situation, meaning we had better pay especially close attention to our every move and step to make sure we don't get our self into an unsafe circumstance.  In 1 John 2:3-5 watch is used to refer to keeping a close eye upon God's Word, to know, believe and do it.  In our English we use this idiom as well, in almost its exact ancient form, but not as extensively.  In English we would say, "you better watch it", or, 'you better watch what you're doing", to someone as a warning or caution that they're words or actions may be starting to get out of bounds, or that they are already out of bounds and need to recognize and get back to the expected or acceptable behavior.  For believers, not staying within the boundaries of God's Word, to know, believe, think, say and do God's Word, is considered wandering out of bounds spiritually, like a sheep wandering from the fold.



5084 - a watch-keeping place (tērēsis, common noun) - In Acts 4:3 the emphasis is upon watching (tereo) them, keeping an eye on them (verse 1) and not upon how or where they were detained, to pressure Jesus' apostles not to speak, and so that the religious leaders could better control their activity. 


In Acts 3 the apostles Peter and John healed a lame man at the Beautiful gate into the temple area.  This powerfully drew the attention of the crowd there.  Subsequently Peter and John began boldly teaching and witnessing to the crowd about exactly what the law and the prophets spoke about Christ Jesus.  This is the key of knowledge which the religious leadership, specifically the lawyers, stole from the people to keep them ignorant (Luke 11:52) about what and who was Jesus, the promised redeemer, the Christ. 


This is an example of how the devil was now working to stop the spread of the knowledge of Christ Jesus, and the subsequent belief in people's hearts into the name of Jesus as a result of learning that knowledge, and their subsequent reception of the new birth above in God's gift of holy Spirit, and their subsequent discipleship to Christ Jesus, on their way to growing up into the fullness of the maturity of Christ (Eph. 4:13), growth into the fullness of God dwelling in them (Eph. 3:14-19).  This is what the devil was now intensely focused upon stopping.  Soon the devil would find a man who would become his cosmological agent, a man named Saul (Acts 8:3, 9:1), who would help him stop the revealing of this key knowledge.



5087 - to place the knees (tithēmi, verb) - In several occurrences of the use of this verb it is used to describe a specific form of bowing, in which the one bowing kneels down to the ground.  These are more references to the Middle Eastern cultural custom of bowing to one another (John 4:23).  Bowing to one another is typically done along with meetings/introductions, and farewells.  There are various words used by the apostles in their writings which refer to this custom. For a comprehensive explanation of this custom and verse references see section 4352 here in the LITG.



5176 - gnawing the flesh of me (trōgō, verb) - This ancient Hebrew idiom is a metaphor, where gnawing is put for reading, and/or studying, and/or learning, and/or understanding God's Word.  It's an idiom meaning to devour the knowledge of God's Word with one's own mind


We can see this idiom used in Jer. 15:16, where taking something into the mind (as opposed to the mouth) to know and understand it, is as 'eating it up'.  This is a somewhat common figure of speech used in our modern English as well, i.e., "I have a bone to chew with you", which is the figure used with a negative connotation.  In this saying the "bone" is a metaphor which refers to all of the particular knowledgeable details about one may have wronged another. 


In Jesus allegory (an extended metaphor or combination of them) in (John 6:52-58), Christ Jesus said that his disciples are to eat the flesh of the Son of the Mortal (v53), gnawing the flesh of me (v54, 56), drinking the blood of me (v54, 56), gnawing me (v57), gnawing this [bread], the bread of me (v58).  In Jesus' allegory he states that his physical body was a metaphor for the bread which the children of Israel ate in the wilderness.  As we can see from this allegory, the bread with which God fed the children of Israel in the wilderness was a metaphor for the precious knowledge of God's Word which he was giving to them through his prophets.  This is to what Jesus referred in Mat. 4:4 and Luke 4:4 in reference to the ancient Hebrew idiom which can be seen in Deut. 8:3 and Jer. 15:16:


Mat. 4:4 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) the (ho) [Jesus] having been caused to make a decision (apokritheis), he enunciated (eipen), “It has been written (gegraptai), ‘The (ho) mortal (anthrōpos) shall absolutely not cause himself to live (ouk zēsetai) upon (ep) bread (artō) alone (monō), BUT (all’), upon (epi) every (panti) individual statement (rhēmati) being caused to go out (ekporeuomenō) through (dia) a mouth (stomatos) of God (theou)!’


Luke 4:4 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) the (ho) Jesus (Iēsous) was caused to make [a] decision (apekrithē) to (pros) him (auton), “It has been written (gegraptai) that (hoti), ‘The (ho) mortal (anthrōpos) shall absolutely not cause himself to live (ouk zēsetai) upon (ep’) bread (artō) alone (monō)!’”


Deut. 8:3 (NASB) "He humbled you and let you be hungry, and fed you with manna which you did not know, nor did your fathers know, that he might make you understand that man does not live by bread alone, but man lives by everything that precedes out of the mouth of the Lord.


Jer. 15:16 (NASB) Your words were found and I ate them, And Your words became for me a joy and the delight of my heart; For I have been called by Your name, O Lord God of hosts.


Some of the knowledge Jesus' disciples are to eat and gnaw about Jesus' sacrifice of his body:


    - For the health of those who believe upon Jesus' name (Isa. 53:5; Mat. 14:19-21, 15:32-38, 26:26; Mark 8:1-9, 14:22; Luke 22:19, 24:30; Acts 2:46, 20:7, 11, 27:35; 1 Cor. 10:16, 11:24; Heb. 9:13-14; 1 Pet. 2:24)


Some of the knowledge Jesus' disciples are to drink about Jesus' sacrifice of his blood and life:


    - To put through God's new covenant with all mortalkind (Mat. 26:28; Mark 14:23-24; Luke 22:20; John 6:52-58; Rom. 11:25-27; 1 Cor. 11:25; Heb. 8:6-13, 9:15-20, 10:1-10, 15-17, 12:24, 13:20)


    - For the letting go of the penalty for sin, for all mortalkind who believe upon Jesus' name (Isa. 53:4-6, 10-12; Mat. 26:28; Mark 14:23-24; Luke 22:20; John 6:52-58, 13:1-15; Acts 20:28; Rom. 3:25, 5:9; 1 Cor. 10:16; Eph. 1:7, 2:13; Col. 1:20; Heb. 9:7, 12, 14, 21-26, 10:11-14, 18-22, 13:12; 1 Pet. 1:2, 17-19; 1 John 1:7; Rev. 1:5, 5:9, 7:14, 12:11, 19:13)



5178 - were tympanied (tumpanizō, verb) - Thayer’s note says:


1. to beat the drum or timbrel.


2. to torture with the tympanum, an instrument of punishment: ετυμπανισθησαν (Vulgate distenti sunt), Hebrews 11:35 (R.V. were tortured (with margin, Or, beaten to death)) (Plutarch, mor., p. 60 a.; joined with ανασκολοπιζεσθαι, Lucian, Jup. trag. 19); the tympanum seems to have been a wheel-shaped instrument of torture, over which criminals were stretched as though they were skins, and then horribly beaten with clubs or thongs (cf. our to break upon the wheel; see English Dicts. under the word Wheel); cf. (Bleek on Hebrews as above); Grimm on 2 Macc. 6:19f* Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament.



5179 - a type, types, an imprint (tupos, noun) - Tupos appears to be used in two related ways:


Tupos is used in the sense of something written as being a very close copy of an authentic original, as an original writing may be reproduced into several copies, for which sense I translate tupos as an imprint Tupos is used metaphorically also, to qualify objective things as examples, models or patterns which represent true spiritual realities, concepts and truths.


"Tupos, anything produced by repeated blows, hence, a mark or impression made by a hard substance on one of softer material; then, a model, pattern, exemplar in the widest sense."3 Dr. E. W. Bullinger


A great book to use to kick off one's own study into the subject matter of types used in God's Word, is titled, The Study Of The Types - Priests And Levites - A Type of the Church, by Ada R. Habershon, Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, MI.  The knowledge of how holy Spirit, God, uses types is his Word, using physical things to represent and illustrate spiritual concepts and truths, is indispensable and essential to anyone who desires to obtain a proper understanding of most all of the deeper spiritual lessons presented in God's Word.  Without a deep knowledge and understanding of types many truths in God's Word cannot be understood.  A lazy, and subsequently ignorant, reader will never "see" them in God's Word.


Another subject matter closely related to holy Spirit's use of types in God's Word, is his use of figures of speech, also.  This is another area of subject matter which is indispensable and essential for any son of God and disciple of Christ Jesus to obtain a proper understanding of most all of the deeper spiritual lessons presented in God's Word.  For this subject matter, the book which belongs in anyone's library is titled, Figures of Speech Used In The Bible - Explained and Illustrated, by Dr. E. W. Bullinger, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, MI.  The same is true about the knowledge of figures of speech used in God's Word, without the knowledge of which a lazy, and subsequently ignorant, reader will not "see" the spiritual concepts or truths being presented by holy Spirit (Mat. 13:10-17).



5180 - to beat (tuptō, verb) - In Jesus' parable recorded in Luke 18:13, the tax collector who said, "The God, be merciful to me, the sinner", Jesus says he was made righteous because he humbled himself in God's eyes.  According to the Judean cultural custom in those days, of beating their chests in mourning for the loss of a loved one,  the tax collector beat his own chest mourning over the loss of himself.  The general belief among the people was that tax collectors were liars and cheats.  Jesus' parable may have been about a tax collector who was repenting to God for his unbelief and sins.


See also:


832 - we piped (auleō, verb)

2354 - a dirge (thrēneō, verb)

2870 - beating of the breast (kopetos, noun)

2875 - you did beat, shall beat themselves, were beating themselves (koptō, verb)



5187 - ones having been made clouds of smoke (tuphoō, verb) - This pejorative idiom is used three times in the texts, all by apostle Paul in his letters to Timothy (1 Tim. 3:6, 6:4, 2 Tim. 3:4).  The subject is Paul warning Timothy about those who may come along and teach something other than the wholesome words/orthodoxy of our Lord Jesus Christ, teaching lies and confusion, thusly blaspheming the God's name.  The idiom accosts the veracity of what one is saying as being highly questionable. 


Apostle Paul is speaking not only about the qualifications for an overseer, but about the responsibility of all those in the one body of Christ, to speak only wholesome teaching (1 Tim. 1:10; 2 Tim. 4:3-4; Tit. 1:9, 2:1).  Paul uses the idiom to equate the quality of what a neophyte disciple or a "plant" (a false "sheep" planted in the midst by the devil) may speak, half-truths and/or lies. 


This idiom is preserved in our Western English to refer to someone who doesn't know what they are talking about but who is a good actor.  Someone whose words are not true is someone "just blowing smoke"; and whose clever words create a "smoke-filled room".  The "cloud of smoke" is the unsubstantiated and unverified assertions floating around in the air which have no basis in the holy scriptures. 


KISS is an an acronym for a simplistic and gimcrackish clever saying, which worthless saying has permeated the whole culture, and unfortunately Christian circles as well, which means "Keep it simple stupid!".  This saying is used blatantly and passive aggressively as a tool or weapon against others, mostly by those who are simplistic and infants themselves, who apparently desire and prefer simple things, but who accuse others of not being simplistic enough, as though being simplistic in the knowledge of God's Word is a desirable goal.  But unfortunately for those who use this saying, not every subject matter in God's Word is simplistic, since parables and prophecies, which often use material realm things as metaphors for like things in the spiritual realm, require digging into the "meat" of God's Word to find their meaning and understanding (Heb. 5:11-14). 


Unfortunately even the simple things in God's Word, the "milk", are going to be unintelligible to illegitimate ones, those who the God is absolutely not teaching (John 6:45).  The writer of Hebrews says that it is "hermeneutically difficult (dusermēneutos) to say (legein)" the spiritual things about the purpose for Christ's coming, which purpose is mortalkind's wholeness, to those who are illegitimate ones.  They can claim KISS all day long against others but they'll still never be able to put God's Word together (1 Tim. 6:3-4), no matter how "simple" they would like it to be for them, because God's not teaching them.


Mat. 13:10 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) the (hoi) disciples (mathētai) having come to (proselthontes) [the Jesus, v1, RE],  enunciated (eipan) to him (autō), “Through (dia) [the sake, AE] of what (ti) do you speak (laleis) to them (autois) in (en) parables (parabolais)?”


Mat. 13:11 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) the (ho) [Jesus, v1, RE] having been caused to make [a] decision (apokritheis), he enunciated (eipen) to them (autois), “Because (hoti) it has been given (dedotai) to you (humin) to know (gnōnai) the (ta) mysteries (musteria) of the (tēs) Kingdom932 (basileias) of the (tōn) Heavens (ouranōn).


But (de) to those (ekeinois) it has absolutely not been given (ou dedotai)!


Mat. 13:12 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) one who (hostis) has (echei), to him (autō) shall be given (dothēsetai), and (kai) he shall be caused to abound (perisseuthēsetai).


But (de) one who (hostis) absolutely does not have (ouk echei), that which (ho) also (kai) he has (echei) shall be removed (arthēsetai) from (ap’) him (autou)!


Mat. 13:13 (LIT/UBS4) Through (dia) this (touto) I speak (lalō) to them (autois) in (en) parables (parabolais);


because (hoti) they being ones seeing (blepontes), they absolutely do not see (ou blepousin) [them]! 


And (kai) they being ones hearing (akouontes), they absolutely do not hear (ouk akouousin) [them], but absolutely nor (oude) do they put [them] together (suniousin)!


Mat. 13:14 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) to them (autois) the (hē) prophecy (prophēteia) of Isaiah (Hsaiou) is caused to be filled up (anaplēroutai), the one (hē) saying (legousa), ‘You shall hear (akousete) [a] thing heard (akoē), and (kai) no (mē), absolutely not (ou) might you put it together (sunēte)!


And (kai) you being ones seeing (blepontes), you shall look at (blepsete) [[a] thing seen, AE] and (kai) no (mē), absolutely not (ou) may you see (idēte) [it, AE]!


Mat. 13:15 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) the (hē) heart (kardia) of the (tou) people (laou) of this (toutou) was made thick3975 (epachunthē);


and (kai) the (tois) ears (ōsin) heard (ēkousan) weightily (bareōs);


and (kai) the (tous) eyes (ophthalmous) of them (autōn) are closed down (ekammusan).


At no time (mēpote) might the (tois) eyes (ophthalmois) [of them, RE] see (idōsin), and (kai) might the (tois) ears (akousōsin) [of them] hear (akousōsin), and (kai) might the (tē) heart (kardia) [of the people, RE] put it together (sunōsin), and (kai) they might turn back (epistrepsōsin) and (kai) I shall cause myself to heal (iasomai) them (autous)!’


(See Isa. 6:9-10; Mat. 13:14-15; Acts 28:26-27)


Mat. 13:16 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) the (hoi) eyes (ophthalmoi) of you (humōn) [are] happy ones (makarioi) because (hoti) they see (blepousin), and (kai) the (ta) ears (ōta) of you (humōn) [are] [happy ones, RE] because (hoti) they hear (akouousin) [parables, v13, RE].


Mat. 13:17 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) truly (amēn) I say (legō) to you (humin), that (hoti) many (polloi) prophets (prophētai) and (kai) righteous ones (dikaioi) lusted (epethumēsan) to see (idein) things which (ha) you look at (blepete), and (kai) they absolutely did not see (ouk eidan) [those things, RE];


and (kai) to hear (akousai) things which (ha) you hear (akouete), and (kai) they absolutely did not hear (ouk ēkousan) [those things, RE]!


Jesus used parables to make known the "mysteries" in God's Word to those to whom God was teaching.  The mysteries are the "deep things (bathē)" in God's Word (1 Cor. 2:9-12), especially the mystery of the Kingdom of the heavens.


Prov. 25:2 (YLT) The honour of God is to hide [a] thing, And the honor of kings to search out [a] matter.

Those who are too lazy to search out the knowledge and understanding of those things which are referred to as the mysteries in God's Word will never grow up in their discipleship to the level of the bar set for a disciple's growth, which level of growth is "into (eis) a complete (teleion) male (andra), into (eis) [the] measure (metron) of the (tou) fullness (plērōmatos) of maturity (hēlikias) of the (tou) Christ (Christou)" (Eph. 4:13).  It is this knowledge of the mysteries which is required to be in every believing disciple of our Lord Jesus Christ, or this growth can't occur. 


The specific knowledge of the mysteries can't produce the precious belief of it in a disciple's heart if that specific knowledge is not is a disciple's mind and heart (Rom. 10:16-17).  This is the kind of belief which manifests God's gift of his Spirit in a disciple of Christ Jesus, which manifestations apostle Paul lists in 1 Cor. 12; which manifestations are the demonstrations of God's power which accomplish the things like those listed in Eph. 5-6; which manifestations are energized in a disciple of Christ Jesus when that disciple causes himself to love God, his son Christ Jesus, and others as he loves himself (Gal. 5:6)!  I've just given you the key of how to walk spiritually as sons of God!


This is why the devil invented that clever little KISS saying, to:


- work for him against those who desire the sincere meat of God's Word;


- work against those who love God with all of their heart, soul, mind and strength who are hungering and thirsting for righteousness;


- accuse those apostle, prophets, evangelists, pastors, and teachers who speak and teach the strong "meat" of God's Word, the mysteries, as being ones "just blowing smoke".


Those disciples who desire the strong "meat" of God's Word, those Christians who are not "just blowing smoke", are those who are willing to pay the price in personal sacrifice of time and energy, whatever it is, to:


- "purchase" that "field" containing the "treasure" (Mat. 13:44), i.e., to obtain the full the knowledge of God's Word;


- "buy" that "pearl" (Mat. 13:45-46), i.e., to believe to receive a new birth above in God's gift of his holy Spirit;


- "haul-in" that "full net" of "fish" (Mat. 13:47-48), i.e., to be given a part and participate in the evangelism of Christ, the Ministry of Reconciliation! 



5203 - one drinking bitter water (hudrōpikos, adj.) - In Luke 14 Jesus Christ taught in the house of one of the chief Pharisees, into which house he was invited to eat bread on a sabbath day.  Before Jesus begins teaching God sets the stage by first working in and through Jesus as his agent, to heal a man there who was apparently drinking bitter water (hudrōpikos) (v2), which, if so, is a common natural remedy known to be beneficial for a number of various ailments.  The plant from which this bitter drink is made belongs to the family of Asteraceae.  The bitter leaf plant is commonly referred to as ironweed, a plant with intensely purple flowers which later take on a rusty hue.  Ancient and modern usage of this remedy includes making a tea from the leaves, and chewing both the stems and the leaves.  The plant flourishes in a variety of climates.  Now we'll see how God's healing of that bitter water drinker got everyone's attention to listen to what Jesus was going to say next.


Jesus taught that if anyone was to give a reception, call the poor ones, the crippled-up ones, the lame ones, and the blind ones to come to eat.  And the one feeding them would be repaid for their service at the standing up (resurrection) of the righteous ones (Luke 14:14)!  Jesus Christ taught not to receive repayment from them, but that God would repay them at the standing up of the righteous ones.  Jesus taught them all publicly to wait to be repaid by God!  That's the opposite of passing the plate to get cash now!  If Jesus taught this to the Pharisee, and all others present there on that occasion, don't you think he taught this to his disciples as well, the ones who were to be the church leadership after his ascension?



5217 - get underway (hupagō, verb) - A colloquialism meaning to get going, get moving, advance, make progress.  To become subordinate to one's mission or purpose.  To begin to go, and to go from one place to another.  This is one of Jesus' favorite colloquialisms (Mark 10:52).



5221 - was opposite under (hupantaō, verb) - Used 5 times; in Mat. 8:28, Luke 8:27, John 11:20, 30, 12:18.  This colloquialism describes the social custom of someone placing themselves into the service of, and in subordination to, someone else.  The word indicates one showing great respect to another.  In John 11:20, 30, when Jesus came into Judea to meet with Martha and Mariam over the death of Lazarus, as Jesus came Martha met him first, before Jesus entered into the village, who then immediately put herself into subordination to him, putting herself under his authority.  In verse 28, after Martha returned from her meeting with Jesus, she referred to Jesus Christ as the "Teacher", indicating her high respect for him. 


Trinitarians may note that Martha did not say that she believed that Jesus Christ was the God.  In fact, she said just the opposite in John 11:22, 27:


John 11:22 (LIT/UBS4) BUT (alla), now (nun) also (kai), I have seen (oida) that (hoti) perhaps (an) as many things as (hosa) you may cause yourself to request (aitēsē) of the (ton) God (theon), the (ho) God (theos) shall give (dōsei) [those things, AE] to you (soi)!


John 11:27 (LIT/UBS4) She says (legei) to him (autō), “Yes (nai), lord (kurie).


I (egō) have believed (pepisteuka) that (hoti) you (su) are (ei) the (ho) Christ (Christos), the (ho) Son (huios) of the (tou) God (theou), the one (ho) causing himself to come (erchomenos) into (eis) the (ton) cosmos (kosmon)!”


Martha makes a clear distinction between two different beings, between Jesus' Father who is the God (1 Cor. 8:6), and Jesus Christ who is his son.  The text here, and in many other places, causes us to logically conclude that if Jesus Christ was the God he would not have needed to request anything from his Father, since Jesus would already have it in his possession and at his disposal.  In addition, Martha would have been meeting with and seeing the God, who is a spirit-based being, the highest Spirit as a matter of fact (Luke 1:32), which spirit-based beings are invisible to our physical eyes unless they choose to manifest themselves in some way.  See apostle Paul's explanation of and distinction between spirit-based (heavenly) and soul-based (earthly) kinds of beings (1 Cor. 15:35-54).


1 John 4:12 (LIT/UBS4) Absolutely not one (oudeis), ever at any time (pōpote), has made himself [a] spectator (tetheatai) of God (theon)!


If perhaps (ean) we may love (agapōmen) one another (allēlous), the (ho) God (theos) stays (menei) in (en) us (hēmin), and (kai) the (hē) love (agapē) of him (autou) is (estin) in (en) us (hēmin), it having been made complete (teteleiōmenē)


1 John 4:13 (LIT/UBS4) In (en) this (toutō) we know (ginōskomen) that (hoti) we stay (menomen) in (en) him (autō), and (kai) he (autos) [stays, RE] in (en) us (hēmin), because (hoti) he has given (dedōken) to us (hēmin) out (ek) of the (tou) Spirit (pneumatos) of him (autou).


Similar to how the God, who is not just a spirit but the Spirit, was in Christ Jesus working IN and THROUGH him, we who have received a new birth above in the God's gift of his Spirit, the paternal gift of himself, he is IN us, working IN and THROUGH us also, based upon our own level of knowledge and belief of his Word.



5228 - over (huper, prep.) - The use of prepositions by the new covenant writers to describe spatial relationships between or among objects is very common.  Prepositions are commonly used by themselves, or prefixed onto verbs and nouns to describe social, professional and/or spiritually assigned relationships between or among people.  Huper can be translated into English most often as either upon or over.  When translated as over it is often used in the sense of taking or having care over, praying over, having charge over something, or doing something over [the sake] of someone or something else.  In reference 5252 huper is prefixed to the noun phroneō, meaning to think.  In this usage huper is used in the sense of going overboard, or beyond what is necessary to think and believe, to describe one's thinking going out or bounds into la la land of  thinking unnecessary fear-based soap opera scenarios of everything which could possibly go wrong, or why God's promise won't work, or isn't possible, instead of simply believing God's Word.



5235 - overthrowing (huperballō, verb - Meaning, beyond what is expected.  In Eph. 2:6-8 it is used to characterize the richness of the love and grace of God the heavenly Father.  The love and grace of God always supplies our sufficiency according to our prayers for our needs and wants, beyond what we ask for or think we'll receive.



5252 - to be over-thoughted (huperphronein, verb) - To have an abundance of thoughts.  In Rom. 12:3 it is used in the sense of worrying about whether other parts of the body are doing their duties, as opposed to a part of the body staying focused upon doing the things pertaining their part of the body for which God has given them belief to do them.



5256 - have under-oared (hupēreteō, verb) - To literally row or oar a boat under the direction, supervision and authority of another.  But it is often used as a common colloquialism to refer to anyone who serves or ministers to another in various ways.  See under-oarsmen, 5257.



5257 - under-oarsmen (hupēretēs, noun) - An apparent seafaring term, but used idiomatically for those of low military and social rank who are subordinate to others to do manual labor for them.


In Mat. 5:25 Christ Jesus uses the term to refer to a bailiff.


In Mat. 26:58, Mark 14:54, 65, in those records of Jesus being captured and led away to Caiaphas, apostle Peter followed from a distance Jesus and his captors, and he entered into a courtyard of the chief sacrificial priest where he sat down with the under-oarsmen of the chief sacrificial priest.  The record of John tells us that Annas, a chief sacrificial priest, the father-in-law of Caiaphas a chief sacrificial priest, examined Jesus first (John 18:13, 24).


In Luke 1:2 Luke speaks of the beginning ones, presumably the apostles, who were eyewitnesses of the Word, which according to the context of Luke's record is the Word made flesh, Christ Jesus, that they were under-oarsmen of the Word, they having been disciples of him, who gave alongside to us all the knowledge of the Word made flesh.


In Luke 4:20 of Luke's record he wrote of Jesus teaching in a synagogue in Nazareth, during which time a scroll of the prophet Isaiah was given to him from which to read and teach.  When Jesus was finished reading from it he gave it to the under-oarsman in the synagogue.


In John 7:31-32 the Pharisees heard the crowd talking about Jesus, because the crowd was hearing him teach in the sacred place, and they had seen the signs he was doing, and they were starting to believe that he was the promised Christ.  And so the chief sacrificial priests and the Pharisees sent their under-oarsmen to catch Jesus, to stop him from teaching the people the truth of God's Word.  In this situation, as in virtually all situations where Jesus and his disciples and apostles were and are confronted in the physical realm to stop preaching and teaching the truth of God's Word, the source of the instigation of the opposition occurs in the spiritual realm, from Satan himself.  The devil, Satan, was using the spiritual leadership of the children of Israel as his own agents in the physical realm (John 8:44; Luke 11:52) to try and stop the people from seeing and believing that Jesus was the promised Christ, the redeemer of not only the children of Israel, but of the whole world!  Jesus Christ thoroughly epitomizes the Pharisees in Luke 11:38-52 for their on-going devilishness.


In modern "Christianity" the satanic and demonic pressure for censorship of the truth of God's Word is still very much abundantly evident.  The devil has already failed at trying to keep the promised redeemer hidden from people seeing and realizing that the Christ has already come.  But corporately the children of Israel, still to this day, have not recognized that Jesus Christ was their promised redeemer, and that their own religious leadership during the time of Christ was actively working for the devil, to help him keep their redeemer's coming a secret (Luke 11:52)! 


Since the devil failed at keeping Christ's arrival secret from virtually the whole world, with the exception of corporate Israel, now his efforts are concentrated on keeping secret the parts of the truth of God's Word which empower people to stand against and defeat the devil and his demon spirits, which vital truth is contained in the knowledge of God's new covenant in Jesus' shed blood, in the new covenant of belief, and in people's belief of God's gift of his powerful holy Spirit coming to permanently live in and home-down in those who have believed upon Jesus' precious name (Mat. 10:25; Acts 1:4-8; Rom. 8:9-11, 37; 1 Cor. 12:6; 2 Cor. 2:14, 13:3-5; Gal. 1:16; Eph. 1:19-20, 4:13, 6:13-18; Phil. 2:13, 4:13; Col. 1:27-29; 1 Thes. 2:13; 2 Tim. 1:7; 1 John 4:4, 5:4-5). 


The devil, working through modern "Christianity" desires to keep people's minds all wrapped up in and side-tracked with sin, and the old Mosaic law, the old covenant of works (Rom. 3:27; Heb. 8:6-13; 2 Pet. 1:4).  his drive is to keep the greatness of the truth of the new covenant hidden, and out of sight, so people cannot participate and live in it; which living in the new covenant is living in the Kingdom of God!  Entering into the new covenant is entering into the Kingdom of God, because God becomes your ruler, and you no longer rule yourself in your own "kingdom", your mind! 


The greatness of what we now have under God's new Covenant is God himself coming to live within each and every one who has believed upon Jesus' precious name, and who has subsequently received God's gift of his holy Spirit in them!  The great truth of the knowledge of God's Word which the devil is now working hard at keeping a secret, he working through modern "Christian" leadership as his agents, is that God himself is now living in you and me, and in all who have received his Spirit, his gift of holy Spirit, and we are his prophesied true "tent", the new raised-up "tent" of David (Amos 9:11-12; Acts 15:16-17; 2 Cor. 5:1, 12:9; Heb. 8:1-2, 9:11; 2 Pet. 1:13-14; Rev. 21:3), God's new domed-roof house (Eph. 2:17-22)!


In John 7:45-46 the under-oarsmen which the Pharisees sent to capture Jesus (John 7:31-32) came back empty-handed, not laying their hands upon him because of the things which they heard Jesus preaching and teaching, which was the powerful truth of God's Word.


In John 18:3 Judas leads to Jesus a spiral of soldiers and the under-oarsmen of the chief sacrificial priests and Pharisees, so they can take Jesus captive and kill him.


In John 18:12 the spiral of soldiers, and the tribune, and the under-oarsmen of the Judeans together took the Jesus, and they bound him.  The devil and the religious leaders must have been afraid that he was going to use his hands to heal someone!  I'm serious!  See John 5:16.


In John 18:15-18 disciple Peter and another disciple followed Jesus into the courtyard of the chief sacrificial priest, to see what shall become of Jesus.  Peter came and stood by a coal fire having been made, where the slaves and under-oarsmen of the chief sacrificial priest had stood, because it was cold. 


In John 18:22 when Jesus answered a question of Annas the chief sacrificial priest, one of his under-oarsmen beat Jesus with a rod on account of he didn't like the bold truthfulness and honesty of Jesus answer.


In John 18:36 while speaking to Pilate, Jesus refers to his disciples as his own under-oarsmen.  Jesus told Pilate that if his Kingdom, Jesus' Kingdom, was of this cosmos, and if therefore he was a threat to Pilate's rule, then Jesus' own under-oarsmen would be fighting now for Jesus' release from custody.


In John 19:1-6 after Pilate scourged Jesus, and his soldiers put a crown of thorns upon him and dressed him in purple outer garments, and they rodded him, Pilate led Jesus back out for the people to see him, and to state to the Judeans again that he has found absolutely not one cause [of an offence] in him, then the chief sacrificial priests and their under-oarsmen cried out saying "Stake! Stake!"


In Acts 5:17-22 the chief sacrificial priests sent their under-oarsmen to a public watch-keeping place where they had put Jesus' apostles for teaching their doctrine in the sacred place.  During the night a messenger of God came and let them out of their detention, and they were found back in the sacred place again, early in the morning, teaching the evangelism of Jesus Christ!  That's boldness!


In Acts 5:26 again the chief sacrificial priests send their under-oarsmen along with the lead soldier of them to lead away the apostles of Jesus from teaching to the people in the sacred place the evangelism of Jesus Christ.


In Acts 13:5 in the record of Barnabas and Saul reporting down the Word of God in the synagogues of the Judeans in Salamis, they had John as an under-oarsman to help them.


In Acts 20:34 apostle Paul speaks of himself idiomatically and diminutively as an under-oarsman, who under the authority of God worked with his own hands for the means to acquire not only his own personal needs, but the personal needs of those traveling with him.  In record after record throughout many of the new covenant writings, we see how the evangelism of Jesus Christ was given freely, without charge to the ones listening and hearing it.  Jesus Christ, apostles Peter and Paul, and all of the apostles, they never passed the plate, which to them would have been selling the knowledge of god's Word for money and repayment!  But contrary to passing the plate, they gave of their own resources to them, to the poor ones, the crippled-up ones, the lame ones, and the blind ones to whom they preached and taught.  See Mat. 10:8; Luke 7:21-22, 41-43; Acts 8:9-24; Acts 18:1-3, 20:33-35; Rom. 3:24, 8:32; 1 Cor. 2:12, 4:12, 4:1-13, 9:3-23; 2 Cor. 11:7; Eph. 4:28; 1 Thes. 4:11-12; 2 Thes. 3:6-12; 1 Tim. 3:3; Titus 1:11; 3 John 1:7; Rev. 21:6, 22:17.


In Acts 26:16 in the record of apostle Paul speaking to king Agrippa, of he giving an account of his apostleship to Jesus Christ, he explains how it came to pass that the resurrected and ascended Christ Jesus appeared to him in the way to Damascus, to hand-choose him to be and under-oarsman and a witness of Christ Jesus, and of the things which he shall cause to appear to Paul.


In 1 Cor. 4:1 apostle Paul teaches that each and every believer is an under-oarsman of Christ, and a house steward of mysteries of God, for which reasons Paul introduces in chapter 3.  In 1 Cor. 3, and elsewhere, apostle Paul describes the characteristics of an under-oarsman of God, an under-oarsman builds, together with God, God's prophesied true "tent", the one body of Christ, God's new permanent domicile, his domed-roof house:


1 Cor. 3:9 - We are workers together with God, each believe being a land worker of God and an individual domed-roof house of God.


1 Cor. 3:16 Each believer is a holy place of God, into which the Spirit of God homesteads.


Believers not only build themselves into a domed-roof house of God, which is discipleship, but they help other believers also in building themselves into a domed-roof house of God.


Therefore, apostle Paul stated:


1 Cor. 4:1 (LIT/UBS4), Thusly (houtōs) let [a] mortal (anthropos) be caused to count3049 (logizesthō) us (hēmas) as (hōs) under-oarsmen5257 (hupēretas) of Christ (Christou), and (kai) [as, RE] house stewards (oikonomous) of mysteries (mustēriōn) of God (theou).



5259 - under (hupo, prep.) - It is very common in the Greek text for prepositions describing spatial relationships between or among objects, to be used to describe social, professional and/or spiritually assigned relationships between or among people, and especially regarding relationships between the God and his creation.


Hupo is most often used in reference to someone being under the authority of another, especially us being under the authority of the God.


Next, hupo is used in reference to someone being physically located under something, under someone's roof, under heaven, under Jesus' feet and out feet, etc.


Next hupo is used in reference to someone being under the influence of something.



5268 - a meek one, a son of one under a yoke (hupozugion, noun) - In Mat. 21:5 Matthew records that Jesus chose to ride into Jerusalem on a foal, "a son of one under a yoke", which fulfills the prophecy of Zech. 9:9.  If Zech. 9:9 is about Jesus riding into Jerusalem to be staked, and to shed his blood so the prophesied "promise of the Father" (Joel 2:28-32; Acts 2:16-21) prophecy could literally be fulfilled and come to pass, i.e., the building of the one body of Christ, of God's true place to stay, his true "tent" made without human hands, then what do you think the rest of Zech. 9 may be about?


This verse is fudged in virtually all English translations of the Bible, to remove the wording "a son of one under a yoke" from appearing to readers, which absence thusly obliterates the explicit metaphorical parallel diminution present in the text between Jesus and the foal.  Why did Jesus chose to ride into Jerusalem on the back of a foal?  And why would the theological cartels which produce English translations desire that to be fudged out of God's Word? 


If Jesus Christ was God, then how could he be a son of one under a yoke, i.e., a Son of the Mortal (Gk. ho huios tou anthropou), Adam.  The "yoke of bondage" was the Mosaic Law (Acts 15:10; Gal. 5:1-4), which the God imposed upon mortalkind on account of the posterity of Adam being in bondage and slavery to sin and death (Rom. 5:12-13).  The law allowed the God to deliver some measure of deliverance from the ravages of sin on mortalkind until the arrival of the promised messiah, Jesus Christ.  


Jesus Christ became manifested and born in the flesh, as the Son of the Mortal, more specifically as a son of Israel.  Jesus became a son of mortalkind, which became yoked-under to the devil, and to sin and death through Adam's sin.  Although Jesus came in the flesh as a son of one under a  yoke, Adam, he was still the rightful heir to the throne of David as the king of Israel.  But while in the flesh he voluntarily denied his own heir to the throne of David, to the throne of Israel, and denying his own kingship he died so that no longer death would be king over all mortalkind, (Rom. 5:14), BUT, that all of mortalkind could become kings (Rom. 5:6-17)!

Along with Rom. 5:6-17, Gal. 4:1-5 and Phil. 2:3-6 give us much more of the answer to the question as to WHY Jesus Chose to ride into Jerusalem on "a son of one under a yoke", he himself being a son of a yoked-under one, a son of Adam, and of David (1 Cor. 15:21;  Please see Jesus' fleshly genealogy through his mother, Mariam, in Mat. 1:1-16).  According to all of the Greek texts I've seen, apostle Paul in 1 Cor. 15:21, 45-47, and in many other records, says that Jesus Christ was a mortal man! 

Since according to Trinitarian theology Jesus Christ is a person of a supposed "godhead", and supposedly co-equal in ALL things to the other two persons of the godhead.  Maybe this is why the Trinitarian theology-based "translators" and translation committees were compelled to obliterate the wording in this passage, "a son of one under a yoke". 


I believe they believed that if they simply quoted the ancient writers, this quote along with all of the others which have been fudged, would simply be too challenging to the plausibility and believability of the Trinitarian theology in the eyes of the readers; because this passage would, along with many others, draw too much attention to Jesus' humanity, mortality and weaknesses as a mortal man, as the holy scriptures say he was in his earthly ministry (Heb. 2:18, 4:15; James 1:13; John 5:19, 10:38, 14:10, 28).



5290 - to turn under (hupostrephō, verb) - to return, to turn back.



5292 - submission (hupotagē, noun) - See 5293



5293 - to be in submission (hupotassō, verb) - The essential definition of a kingdom is that all things therein are in submission to the authority, to the king of that kingdom.  No empire or kingdom can expand its borders without causing the area into which it may expand to become into submission to the authority or king of that kingdom. The God is causing all things in the cosmos to become under the feet of (an oriental idiom describing submission to authority) his son Christ Jesus. And this expansion is still occurring now, at this moment, until the completion of this present age.  When this process is complete, then Christ Jesus shall give his Kingdom back to his heavenly Father, at which time Jesus' Kingdom then becomes once again the Kingdom of the God. (For Jesus’ Kingdom see Mat. 13:37-43; 1 Cor. 15:24-28; Eph. 1:19-23; Heb. 2:5-8)


As a king has authority over all things in his kingdom, likewise a son of God is to have authority over his own household, everyone within that household being in submission to the head of the household (1 Tim. 3:4). Within the household of God our heavenly Father, at this moment Christ Jesus is the head of that household, the household being Christ's one body, the assembly (Gk. ekklesia), which assembly is presently the Kingdom of the Son of the Mortal. (For Jesus’ Kingdom see Mat. 13:37-43; 1 Cor. 15:24-28; Eph. 1:19-23; Heb. 2:5-8)


In 2 Cor. 9:13, our confession with our mouth of the belief in our hearts into the evangelism of Jesus Christ (Rom. 10:9-10), is our own declaration of our submission to him, which obtains for us a new birth above, a baptism from Christ Jesus (Mat. 3:11) in God's gift of his paternal holy Spirit, which is both Christ Jesus' inheritance and ours.



5296 - a pattern (hupotupōsis, noun) -



5312 - to set above (hupsoō, verb) -


1 To set something up higher, literally of figuratively, so that it can be seen:


    • an icon of a "fiery" snake made out of brass, set on the top of a pole, so anyone snake-bit could look at it       and receive healing to live (Num. 21:5-9, John 3:14, 8:28, 12:32-34; Acts 2:33, 5:31).


    • to be set above into heaven, into a position of honor, glory and leadership (Mat. 11:23, Luke 10:15; John 3:14; 12:32-34; Acts 2:33, 5:31; 2 Cor. 11:7; James 4:10)


    • to be honored/glorified above others (Mat. 23:12; Luke 1:52, 14:11, 18:14; John 8:28; Acts 13:17; 2 Cor. 11:7; James 4:10; 1 Pet. 5:6)


2 An idiom meaning to supply someone with all of the necessary provisions for their needs, identical to our modern idiom, "to be set up", or "to get ourselves set up" :

    • The children of Israel in the land of Egypt (Acts 13:17)

    • The believers in the area of Corinth (2 Cor. 11:7)

    • Judean believers in Asia (1 Pet. 5:6)



5316 - is it caused to shine (phainetai, verb) to you - In the present form of this literary figure of speech we in the West would say, "Does it dawn upon you yet?"



5346 - to shed light (phēmi, verb) - Here's a popular colloquialism used by Jesus and his apostles and disciples, and likely almost everyone, which has come down to us now here into our occidental Western English (and I suppose elsewhere) in a form identical to how it was used about two thousand years ago.  To shed light on something means to explain or clarify something.  Phēmi, or an inflected form of it, is used 15 times by Matthew, at least 32 times by Luke, and other usages by Mark, John and Paul, and by other scriptural characters, for a total of about 58 usages in the new covenant texts of the Bible, indicating it was a fairly common colloquialism.


The use of this colloquialism often signals an important statement or passage about Truth, about the true orthodoxy of Christ Jesus.  It is sometimes used in the sense of repartee, in the sense of coming out with an exclamation or an answer which is apparently clever, and/or very apropos to the current situation, but as if the obvious needed to be stated for someone.  But even so, it's most always a signal of an important "guiding light" statement, presentation and/or witness of Truth, the true orthodoxy of Christ Jesus, which is why all usages throughout the new covenant texts are superscripted. 



5350 - to utter an apothegm (phtheggomai, verb) - In Acts 4:18 the religious leaders threatened apostles Peter and John not to speak apothegms, nor teach in the name of Jesus.  The religious leaders' use of the word apothegm is an apparent reference to, and description of, the things apostles Peter and John were speaking and teaching.  It may have been metaphorical reference by the religious leaders for the apostles not to speak even the most diminutive utterance, not even the slightest little thing about Jesus Christ. 


Peter and John were quoting ancient prophecies of the prophets of the children of Israel, which prophecies spoke of the coming redeemer, what he would say and do when he came.  Peter and John were quoting Jesus Christ also, their teacher, quoting him on the  particular and specific things he said, and explaining the things he did, which things fulfilled those prophecies.  What seems more likely is the religious leaders' use of the word apothegm as an apparent reference to, and a characterization of, the quotes of the ancient prophets and the quotes of Jesus Christ which Peter and John were speaking and teaching. 


Apostles Peter and John were delivering the key of knowledge of God's Word, which specific knowledge the religious leaders were keeping hidden, withholding it from the people (Luke 11:52).  The religious leaders, who were working for their father the devil (John 8:44), did not want the people to know that Jesus Christ was the promised coming messiah for the children of Israel, and that he has finally arrived.  This is why they were desperately trying to disassociate Jesus from the ancient prophecies about the coming redeemer.  The devil didn't want anyone to know the the promised redeemer has finally come, and he still does not want anyone to know it.



5411 - property taxes (phoros, common noun) - This is poorly but commonly translated as "tribute" in most translations.  Phoros is related to pherō, which means to bring Phoros is a noun meaning that which is brought.  This tax is a tax paid on the value of one's property and estate, and was most often paid on an annual basis.  This tax was paid in both gold and silver coin, and could be paid also in goods, like grain, animals, or whatever it was that a person produced.  Whatever is was that a person used to pay their appointed amount of tax, it needed to be loaded up and hauled to the governing authority to be delivered.  A man's property tax which was due had to be brought to the governing officials into the city/town where he was required to pay it.



5419 - phrase (phrazō, verb) - In Mat. 15:15 Peter, a disciple in this record at that time, was asking Jesus to break down the explanation to them of his parable into parts for them, so they could more easily understand the inherent meanings of its parts, and so then its overall meaning.



5423 - thought-deceivers (phrenapatai, noun) - Used one time in Titus 1:10.  Those who deceive, deceive you with their thoughts, which are lies.  They are sculptors at erroneous lines of thinking, false logic, designed to lead to erroneous conclusions and beliefs.  They mislead you into thinking and believing lies instead of leading you into thinking and believing God's Word which is Truth.  They often use God's Word out of context, and they do not rightly divide (KJV, 2 Tim. 2:15) it.  Those who are unappointable ones, empty talkers, ones whose mouths need to be covered, who upturn whole houses with their lies (see context).



5434 - Phragmites (phruganon, proper noun) - Phragmites are a tall grass (Phragmites australis) which commonly grows along the sea in salty marshes on the island of Malta, often where fresh water and salt water are present together in transitional coastal wetlands, according to the Malta Environment & Planning Authority (MEPA).  Other species and varieties of this grass/reed grow all over the world. 


Phragmites Australis 


Phragmites australis


Phragmites Australis seed head in winter 


Phragmites australis seed head in winter.


"Vegetation patterns are observed in saline marshlands reflecting differences in chemical and physical conditions. Areas that remain dry or moist harbour those plants that are not aquatic such as the Smooth-leaved Saltwort (Scientific: Salsola soda; Maltese: Ħaxixa ta' l-Irmied). Shallow parts of the salt marsh that hold a small volume of water for several days, are colonized by plants that although not aquatic are still able to withstand short periods of inundation until the water dries up or evaporates. Deeper areas that remain filled with water for longer periods only support aquatic and semi-aquatic plants. Plants characteristic of saline marshlands are the Sharp Rush (Scientific: Juncus acutus; Maltese: Simar Niggież), the Sea Rush (Scientific: Juncus maritimus; Maltese: Simar tal-Baħar) and the Common Reed (Scientific: Phragmites australis; Maltese: Qasbet ir-Riħ).

Some coastal wetlands appear to be transitional between freshwater wetlands and saline marshlands in the sense that the biotic assemblages they support consist of species typical of both freshwater and saline habitats. Such wetlands have been termed 'transitional coastal wetlands'. Such wetlands arise when rainwater collects in depressions close to the sea, such as at Għadira s-Safra."
- Malta Environment & Planning Authority (MEPA). "Terestrial Habitats".


See also



5456 - voice, sound, noise (phōnē, noun) - A sound of any kind.  "Sound" is often used in the text to refer to the unique meaning which the sound represents.  In battle horns are blown to produce various sounds which signal various events which are to begin to take place; attention, charge, retreat, mourning for the dead, etc.  When, according to the context, the sound is the voice of someone speaking, then phōnē or an inflected form of it is translated as voice, or a voice.  If the sound is not from a person or people speaking, and the sound is not unpleasant or disturbing, then phōnē or an inflected form of it is translated as sound, or a sound.   If the sound is not from a person or people speaking, and the sound is unpleasant or disturbing, then phōnē or an inflected form of it is translated as noise, or a noise.



5479 - a joy and [a reason for] jumping for joy (chara, common noun), (agalliasis, noun, 20) - In Luke 1:14 the messenger Gabriel, speaking to Elizabeth about the birth of John the Baptist, implies that he (John) shall be "[a reason for] jumping for joy", i.e., a reason to have joy and a reason for dancing, because he shall be great in the sight of the Lord (God).



5678 - a harold (rekkēd_lah, common noun) - Apparently a word borrowed from an unknown source.  One who makes known a mystery, or a secret.



5586 - I let down a pebble (psēphos, common noun) - A small stone or pebble. In Acts 26:10 and Rev. 2:17, an allusion to the ancient custom among the Greeks of acquitting with a white stone or pebble, and condemning with a black one. (Zodhiates, Spiros. Complete Word Study Dictionary, The - The Complete Word Study Dictionary – New Testament. AMG International, Inc. 1992. WORDsearch Database, 2014, WORDsearch.)


The heart of us has been widened around - "Our hearts are enlarged" means "we are relieved."  That is to say, we have done our duty and told you the truth." 1


The mouth of us has been opened toward you - "Our mouth is open" is an Eastern saying which means "we have told you everything."  When people speak plainly and try to tell everything it is said of them that "they have a large mouth." 1


to search up (anazēteō, verb, 327) - A colloquialism virtually identical in meaning to our modern one, To look up someone"Look me up next time your in town."  This idiom is used twice in scripture, by Luke, in Luke 2:44 and Acts 11:25. 


1.  Lamsa, George. New testament Commentary. Philadelphia: A. J. Holman, 1945, p. 303.


2.  Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary. Nashville: Holman Bible Publishers, 2003, p. 233. 


3.  A Critical Lexicon And Concordance To The English And Greek New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 1908, 1999, p. 265.