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Chapter 12


Update:  2022.09.05


Mark 12:1 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) he caused himself to start (ērxato) to speak (lalein) to them (autois) in (en) parables (parabolais):


“A mortal (anthrōpos) planted (ephuteusen) [a] vineyard (ampelōna)


And (kai) he placed around (periethēken) [it, AE] [a] fence (phragmon).


And (kai) he dug (ōruxen) [an] underlying vat (hupolēnion).


And (kai) he built [a] domed-roof house3618 (ōkodomēsen) tower (purgon).


And (kai) he caused himself to give it out (exedeto) to land workers (geōrgois), and (kai) he went away (apedēmēsen).


Mark 12:2 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) he sent (apesteilen) to (pros) the (tous) land workers (geōrgous), for the (tō) time (kairō) [of harvest, AE], [a] slave (doulon), in order that (hina) alongside (para) of the (tōn) land workers (geōrgōn) he may receive (labē) from (apo) the (tōn) produce (karpōn) of the (tou) vineyard (ampelōnos).


Mark 12:3 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) having taken (labontes) him (auton), they skinned1194 (edeiran) [him, RE], and (kai) they sent [him, RE] away (apesteilan) empty (kenon).


Mark 12:4 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) again (palin) he sent (apesteilen) to (pros) them (autous) another (allon) slave (doulon).


And that one (kakeinon) they struck in the head (ekephaliōsan), and (kai) dishonored (ētimasan).


Mark 12:5 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) he sent (apesteilen) another (allon).


And that one (kakeinon) they killed (apekteinan), and (kai) many (pollous) others (allous);


truly (men), they skinning1194 (derontes) some (hous), but (de) they killing (apoktennontes) some (hous)!


Mark 12:6 (LIT/UBS4) He was having (eichen) yet (eti) one (hena) loved one (agapēton), [a] son (huion).


He sent (apesteilen) him (auton) last (eschaton) to (pros) them (autous), saying (legōn) that (hoti), ‘They shall be made respectful (entrapēsontai) of the (ton) son (huion) of me (mou).’


Mark 12:7 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) those ones (ekeinoi), the (hoi) land workers (geōrgoi), enunciated (eipan) to (pros) themselves (heautous) that (hoti), ‘This one (houtos) is (estin) the (ho) heir (klēronomos)! 


Next (deute), we may kill (apokteinōmen) him (auton), and (kai) the (hē) inheritance (klēronomia) shall be (estai) of us (hēmōn)!’


Mark 12:8 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) having taken (labontes) [him, v7, RE] they killed (apekteinan) him (auton).


And (kai) they threw him out (exebalon auton) outside (exō) of the (tou) vineyard (ampelōnos).


Mark 12:9 (LIT/UBS4) Therefore (oun), what (ti) [shall, AE] the (ho) lord (kurios) of the (tou) vineyard (ampelōnos) do (poiēsei)?


He shall cause himself to come (eleusetai) and (kai) he shall destroy (apolesei) the (tous) land workers (geōrgous).


And (kai) he shall give (dōsei) the (ton) vineyard (ampelōna) to others (allois)!


Mark 12:10 (LIT/UBS4) But have you absolutely not read up (oude anegnōte) this (tautēn), the (tēn) writing (graphēn), ‘[A] stone (lithon) of which (hon) the ones (hoi) building [a] domed-roof house3618 (oikodomountes) disapproved (apedokimasan), this (houtos) [stone, RE] was caused to become (egenēthē) into (eis) [a] head (kephalēn) of [an] angle1137 (gōnias)!


Mark 12:11 (LIT/UBS4) This (hautē) [stone, v10, RE] caused himself to come to pass (egeneto) alongside3844, 3936 (para) of [the] Lord (kuriou, YHWH)!


And (kai) [this stone, v10, RE] is (estin) [an] amazing one (thaumastē) in (en) [the] eyes (ophthalmois) of us (hēmōn)!’"


(For a stone becoming a head of an angle, see Psalm 118:22-23; Isa. 28:16-17; Mat. 21:42; Mark 12:10-11; Luke 20:17; Acts 4:1-11; Eph. 2:20; 1 Pet. 2:4-7)


(For an outline of Jesus Christ’s accomplishments in his earthly agency to his heavenly Father, see the note under Mat. 3:17.)


(For a believer's responsibility to stand himself alongside of the Father through doing good works, in order to receive anything from him, see Mat. 6:1-4, 18:19, 19:26, 21:42; Mark 10:27, 12:11; Luke 1:30, 37; John 5:44, 6:45-46, 8:38-42, 9:16, 33, 17:5-8; Rom. 2:11-13, 6:13, 12:1; 1 Cor. 7:24, 8:8a; 2 Cor. 9:8; Gal. 3:11; Eph. 6:8; 1 Tim. 2:10; 2 Tim. 3:17; Tit. 2:14, 3:8,14; Heb. 10:24; James 1:5-7, 27; 1 Pet. 2:20-21; 2 Pet. 3:8; 2 John 1:3; Rev. 2:28)


Mark 12:12 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) they were searching (ezētoun) to powerfully take hold (kratēsai) of him (auton), and (kai) they were caused to be in fear (ephobēthēsan) of the (ton) crowd (ochlon);


because (gar) they knew (egnōsan) that (hoti) he enunciated (eipen) the (tēn) parable (parabolēn) to (pros) them (autois). 


And (kai) having let go (aphentes) of him (auton), they went from (apēlthon) [him, RE].


Mark 12:13 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) they send (apostellousin) to (pros) him (auton) some (tinas) of the (tōn) Pharisees (pharisaiōn) and (kai) [some, RE] of the (tōn) Herodians (Hērōdianōn), in order that (hina) they might catch (agreusōsin) him (auton) for [a] word (logō).


Mark 12:14 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) having come (elthontes), they say (legousin) to him (autō), “Teacher (didaskale), we have seen (oidamen) that (hoti) you are (ei) [a] true one (alēthēs), and (kai) it absolutely does not matter (ou melei) to you (soi) about (peri) absolutely not one (oudenos)!


Because (gar) you absolutely do not look (ou blepeis) into (eis) face (prosōpon) [appearance, AE] of mortals (anthrōpōn)!


BUT (all’), you teach (didaskeis) over (ep’) [the sake, AE] of the (tēn) way (hodon) of Truth (alētheias) of the (tou) God (theou)! 


Is it being outside1832 (exestin) [of the law, AE] to give (dounai) [a] census2778 (kēnson) to Caesar (kaisari), or (ē) [is it, RE] absolutely not (ou)!?


May we give (dōmen), or (ē) may we not give (mē dōmen)?” 


Mark 12:15 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) the (ho) [Jesus, v11:33, RE] having seen (eidōs) the (tēn) acting (hupokrisin) of them (autōn), he enunciated (eipen) to them (autois), “What (ti)?  


Are you testing (peirazete) me (me)!? 


Bring (pherete) to me (moi) [a] denarius (dēnarion) in order that (hina) I may see (idō) [it, AE].”


Mark 12:16 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) the (hoi) [chief sacrificial priests, v11:27, RE] brought (ēnenkan) [it, RE].


And (kai) he says (legei) to them (autois), “The (hē) icon (eikōn), this one (hautē), [is] of whom (tinos)?”


But (de) the (hoi) [chief sacrificial priests, v11:27, RE] enunciated (eipan) to him (autō), “Of Caesar (Kaisaros)!”


Mark 12:17 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) the (ho) Jesus (Iēsous) enunciated (eipen) to them (autois), “The things (ta) of Caesar (Kaisaros), give (apodote) to Caesar (Kaisari);


and (kai) the things (ta) of the (tou) God (theou), [give, RE] to the (tō) God (theō)!” 


And (kai) they were being amazed-out (exethaumazon) over (ep’) him (autō).


Mark 12:18 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) [the] Sadducees (Saddoukaioi) cause themselves to come (erchontai) to (pros) him (auton), ones who (hoitines) say (legousin) there is not to be (mē einai) [a] standing up (anastasin).


And (kai) they were inquiring (epērōtōn) of him (auton), saying (legontes),


Mark 12:19 (LIT/UBS4) “Teacher (didaskale), Moses (Mōusēs) wrote (egrapsen) to us (hēmin) that (hoti) If perhaps (ean) [a] brother (adelphos) of someone (tinos) may die away (apothanē), and (kai) he may leave (katalipē) [a] female (gunaika) and (kai) he may not have left (mē aphē) [a] born one (teknon), the (ho) brother (adelphos) may take (labē) the (tēn) female (gunaika) of him (autou);


and (kai) in order that (hina) he may stand up out (exanastēsē) [of her, AE] [a] seed/sperm (sperma) to the (tō) brother (adelphō) of him (autou).


Mark 12:20 (LIT/UBS4) There were being (ēsan) seven (hepta) brothers (adelphoi).


And (kai) the (ho) first (prōtos) took (elaben) [a] female (gunaika), and (kai) dying away (apothnēskōn) he absolutely did not leave (ouk aphēken) [a] seed/sperm (sperma)!


Mark 12:21 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) the (ho) second (deuteros) took (elaben) her (autēn), and (kai) he died away (apethanen) not (mē) having left (katalipōn) [a] seed/sperm (sperma).


And (kai) the (ho) third (tritos) in the same manner (hōsautōs).


Mark 12:22 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) the (hoi) seven (hepta) absolutely did not leave (ouk aphēkan) [a] seed/sperm (sperma)! 


Last (eschaton) of all (pantōn), the (hē) female (gunē) also (kai) died away (apethanen)!


Mark 12:23 (LIT/UBS4) In (en) the (tē) standing up (anastasei), when perhaps (hotan) they may stand up (anastōsin), of which one (tinos) of them (autōn) shall she cause herself to be (estai) [a] female (gunē)?


Because (gar) the (hoi) seven (hepta) held (eschon) her (autēn) [as, AE] [a] female (gunaika)?”


Mark 12:24 (LIT/UBS4) The (ho) Jesus (Iēsous) shed light5346 (ephē) to them (autois), “[Is] [it, AE] absolutely not (ou) through (dia) this (touto) you are caused to wander (planasthe):

you neither having seen (mē eidotes) the (tas) writings (graphas), but (de) nor (mē) the (tēn) inherently powered work (dunamin) of the (tou) God (theou)!


Mark 12:25 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) when perhaps (hotan) they may stand up (anastōsin) out (ek) of dead ones (nekrōn), they absolutely do not marry (oute gamousin), and they absolutely are not given in marriage (oute gamizontai)


BUT (all’), they are (eisin) as (hōs) messengers (angeloi) in (en) the (tois) heavens (ouranois)!


Mark 12:26 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) about (peri) the (tōn) dead ones (nekrōn), that (hoti) they are awakened (egeirontai), have you absolutely not read up (ouk anegnōte) in (en) the (tē) scroll (biblō) of Moses (mōuseōs) over (epi) [the sake, AE] of the (tou) brier bush (batou), how (pōs) the (ho) God (theos) enunciated (eipen) to him (autō), saying (legōn), ‘I (egō) [am] the (ho) God (theos, elohim) of Abraham (Abraam), and (kai) the (ho) God (theos, elohim) of Isaac (Isaak), and (ho) the (ho) God (theos, elohim) of Jacob (Iakōb)!?


(See Ex. 3:6; Mat. 22:29-32; Mark 12:24-27; Luke 20:34-38.)


Mark 12:27 (LIT/UBS4) He is (estin) absolutely not (ouk) God (theos) of dead ones (nekrōn), BUT (alla), of ones living (zōntōn)!  


You are caused to wander (planasthe) much (polu)!”


Mark 12:28 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) one (heis) of the (tōn) writers (grammateōn) having come to (proselthōn) [the Jesus, v24, RE], he having heard (akousas) of them (autōn) questioning together with (suzētountōn) [the Jesus, v24, RE], he having seen (idōn) that (hoti) he was caused to decide (apekrithē) for them (autois) beautifully (kalōs), he inquired (epērōtēsen) of him (auton), “Which (poia) injunction (entolē) is (estin) [the] first (prōtē) of all (pantōn)?”


Mark 12:29 (LIT/UBS4) The (ho) Jesus (Iēsous) was caused to make [a] decision (apekrithē), that (hoti), “[The] first (prōtē) is (estin), ‘Hear (akoue), Israel (Israēl), [the] Lord (kurios, YHWH) the (ho) God (theos, elōhîm) of us (hēmōn) is (estin) one (heis) Lord (kurios, YHWH);


Mark 12:30 (LIT/UBS4) and (kai) love (agapēseis) [the] Lord (kurion, YHWH) the (ton) God (theon, elōhîm) of you (sou) out (ex) [of the, AE] whole (holēs) of the (tēs) heart (kardia) of you (sou), and (kai) out (ex) [of the, AE] whole (holēs) of the (tēs) soul (psuchēs) of you (mou), and (kai) out (ex) [of the, AE] whole (holēs) of the (tēs) mind (dianoias) of you (mou), and (kai) out (ex) [of the, AE] whole (holēs) of the (tēs) strength (ischuos) of you (sou).


(See Deut. 6:4-5)


Mark 12:31 (LIT/UBS4) This (hautē) second (deutera) [is], 'Love (agapēseis) the (ton) neighborly one (plēsion) of you (sou) as (hōs) yourself (seauton).


There is (estin) absolutely not (ouk) another (allē) greater (meizōn) injunction (entolē) of these (toutōn)!'”


Mark 12:32 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) the (ho) writer (grammateus) enunciated (eipen) to him (autō), “Beautifully (kalōs), teacher (didaskale), do you enunciate (eipes) over (ep’) [the sake, AE] of Truth (alētheias), that (hoti) there is (estin) one (heis) [Lord, v29, RE];


and (kai) moreover (plēn), there is (estin) absolutely not (ouk) another (allos) of him (autou)!


Mark 12:33 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) the one (to) [is] to love (agapan) him (auton) out (ex) of whole (holēs) of the (tēs) heart (kardias), and (kai) out (ex) of whole (holēs) of the (tēs) intelligence (suneseōs), and (kai) out (ex) of whole (holēs) of the (tēs) strength (ischuos).


And (kai) the one (to) [is] to love (agapan) the (ton) neighborly one (plēsion) as (hōs) himself (heauton).


[Love, RE] is (estin) abundant (perissoteron) [over, AE] all (pantōn) of the (tōn) whole burnt offerings (holokautōmatōn), and (kai) sacrifices (thusiōn)!"


Mark 12:34 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) the (ho) Jesus (Iēsous), having seen (idōn) of him (auton), that (hoti) he was caused to make [a] decision (apekrithē) carefully (nounechōs), he enunciated (eipen) to him (autō), “You are (ei) absolutely not (ou) far off (makran) from (apo) the (tēs) Kingdom932 (basileias) of the (tēs) God (theou)!”


And (kai) absolutely not one (oudeis) was absolutely no longer yet being audacious enough (ouketi etolma) to inquire (eperōtēsai) of him (auton)!


Mark 12:35 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) the (ho) Jesus (Iēsous) having been caused to make [a] decision (apokritheis), he was saying (elegen), teaching (didaskōn) in (en) the (tō) holy place (hierō), “How (pōs) <do> the (hoi) writers (grammateis) say (legousin) that (hoti) the (ho) Christ (Christos) is (estin) [a] son (huios) of David (Dauid)?


Mark 12:36 (LIT/UBS4) David (Dauid) himself (autos) enunciated (eipen) in (en) the (tō) Spirit (pneumati), the (tō) holy one (hagiō), ‘[The] Lord (kurious, YHWH) enunciated (eipen) to the (tō) lord (kuriō, ādôn) of me (mou), “Cause yourself to sit down (kathou) out (ek) right (dexiōn) of me (mou) until (heōs) perhaps (an) I may put (thō) the (tous) hated ones (echthrous) of you (sou) down under (hupokatō) the (tōn) feet (podōn) of you (sou)!”’


(For Christ Jesus' footstool, see Psalm 110:1; Mat. 22:44; Mark 12:36; Luke 20:43; Acts 2:35; *Rom. 16:20; 1 Cor. 15:25-28; Eph. 1:22; Heb. 1:13, 2:8, 10:13)


Mark 12:37 (LIT/UBS4) David (Dauid) himself (autos), he says (legei) of him (auton), "lord (kurion, ādôn)!"


And (kai) from where (pothen) is (estin) [[a/the] lord of him, RE] [a] son (huios) of him (autou)!?” 


And (kai) the (ho) large (polus) crowd (ochlos) was hedonistically hearing (hēdeōs ēkouen) him (autou).


Mark 12:38 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) in (en) the (tē) orthodoxy (didachē) of him (autou) he was saying (elegen), “Look (blepete) away from (apo) the (tōn) writers (grammateōn), the ones (tōn) desiring (thelontōn) to walk around (peripatein) in (en) stoles (stolais), and (kai) [desiring, RE] greetings (aspasmous) in (en) the (tais) marketplaces (agorais),


Mark 12:39 (LIT/UBS4) and (kai) first seats4410 (prōtokathedrias) in (en) the (tais) synagogues (sunagōgais), and (kai) first recliners4411 (prōtoklisias) in (en) the (tois) dinners (deipnois);


Mark 12:40 (LIT/UBS4) the ones (hoi) devouring (katesthiontes) the (tas) houses (oikias) of the (tōn) bereaved ones (chērōn), and (kai) for outward showbiz (prophasei) are causing themselves to be well-thankful to4336 (proseuchomenoi) [God, AE] from afar (makra)!


These ones (houtoi) shall cause themselves to receive (lēmpsontai) [an] abundant (perissoteron) judicial decision (krima)!”


Mark 12:41 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) he having sat down (kathisas) down opposite in front2713 (katenanti) of the (tou) treasury (gazophulakiou), he was observing (etheōrei) how (pōs) the (ho) crowd (ochlos) throws (ballei) copper (chalkon) into (eis) the (to) treasury (gazophulakion).


And (kai) many (polloi) wealthy ones (plousioi) were throwing (eballon) much (polla).


Mark 12:42 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) one (mia) poor (ptōchē) bereaved one (chēra) having come (elthousa), she threw (ebalen) two (duo) leptas (lepta), which (ho) is (estin) [a] kodrantes (kodrantēs).


Mark 12:43 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) having caused himself to call aloud to (proskalesamenos) the (tous) disciples (mathētas) of him (autou), he enunciated (eipen) to them (autois), “Truly (amēn) I say (legō) to you (humin), that (hoti) the (hē) bereaved one (chēra), this one (hautē), the (hē) poor one (ptōchē), threw (ebalen) more than (pleion) all (pantōn) the ones (tōn) throwing (ballontōn) into (eis) the (to) treasury (gazophulakion)!


Mark 12:44 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) all (pantes) threw (ebalon) out (ek) of the (tou) thing abunding (perisseuontos) to them (autois).


But (de) this one (hautē), out (ek) of the (tēs) lack (husterēseōs) of her (autēs), she threw (ebalen) all (panta), as much as (hosa) she was holding (eichen), the (ton) whole (holon) living (bion) of her (autēs)!”