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Chapter 1


Update:  2024.05.14


Rom. 1:1 (LIT/UBS4) Paul (Paulos), [a] slave (doulos) of Christ (Christou) Jesus (Iēsou), [a] called aloud (klētos) apostle (apostolos), one having been segregated away (aphōrismenos) into (eis) [the] Evangelism (euangelion) of God (theou);


Rom. 1:2 (LIT/UBS4) which (ho) [God, v1, RE] caused himself to promise before (proepēngeilato) through (dia) the (tōn) prophets (prophētōn) of him (autou) in (en) holy (hagiais) writings (graphais)


Rom. 1:3 (LIT/UBS4) about (peri) the (tou) son (huiou) of him (autou), the (tou) [son, RE] having caused himself to become (genomenou) out (ek) of the (tou) seed/sperm (spermatos) of David (Dauid) down according to (kata) flesh (sarka);


(For an outline of Jesus Christ’s accomplishments in his earthly agency to his heavenly Father, see the note under Mat. 3:17.)


Rom. 1:4 (LIT/UBS4) [about, v3, RE] the (tou) son (huiou) of God (theou) in (en) inherent power (dunamei), he having been segregated (horisthentos) down according to (kata) [the] Spirit (pneuma) of holiness (hagiōsunēs);


[about, v3, RE] [the] standing up (anastaseōs) of Jesus (Iēsou) Christ (Christou), the (tou) lord (kuriou) of us (hēmōn), out (ek) of dead ones (nekrōn);


Rom. 1:5 (LIT/UBS4) through (di’) whom (hou) we received (elabomen) grace (charin) and (kai) apostleship (apostolēn) into (eis) [an] attentive hearing (hupakoēn) of belief (pisteōs) among (en) all (pasin) the (tois) ethnic groups (ethnesin), over (huper) [the sake, AE] of the (tou) name (onomatos) of him (autou);


Rom. 1:6 (LIT/UBS4) among (en) whom (hois) you (humeis) also (kai) are (este) ones called aloud (klētoi) of Jesus (Iēsou) Christ (Christou)!


(For what is the scriptural definition of the meaning of, “being baptized in the name of…”, compare Mat. 28:19; John 5:37-43, 10:25, 13:6-15; Acts 4:7, 9:17-18, 19:5, 22:16; Rom. 1:1-6; Eph. 5:26; Titus 3:5; Rev. 1:5)


Rom. 1:7 (LIT/UBS4) To all (pasin) the ones (tois) being (ousin) in (en) Rome (Rhōmē),


to beloved ones (agapētois) of God (theou),


to ones called aloud (klētois),


to holy ones (hagiois),


grace (charis) to you (humin) and (kai) peace (eirēnē) from (apo) God (theou), Father (patros) of us (hēmōn) and (kai) of lord (kuriou) Jesus (Iēsou) Christ (Christou).


Rom. 1:8 (LIT/UBS4) First (prōton), truly (men), I give thanks well (eucharistō) to the (tō) God (theō) of me (mou), through (dia) [the sake, AE] of Jesus (Iēsou) Christ (Christou), about (peri) all (pantōn) of you (humōn);


that (hoti) the (hē) belief (pistis) of you (humōn) is reported down (katangelletai) in (en) to the (tō) whole (holō) cosmos (kosmō)!


Rom. 1:9 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) the (ho) God (theos) is (estin) [a] witness (martus) of me (mou), whom (hō) I serve (latreuō) in (en) the (hō) Spirit (pneuma) of me (mou), in (en) the (tō) Evangelism (euangeliō) of the (tou) son (huiou) of him (autou), as (hōs) unceasingly (adialeiptōs) I make myself (poioumai) [a] remembrance (mneian) of you (humōn) always (pantote),


Rom. 1:10 (LIT/UBS4) upon (epi) the (tōn) prayers of well-thankfulness to4335 (proseuchōn) [God, AE] of me (mou);


causing myself to beg (deomenos) if (ei) somehow (pōs) already (ēdē), at some time (pote), I shall be made well on my way (euodōthēsomai) to come (elthein) to (pros) you (humas) in (en) the (tō) desire (thelōmati) of the (tou) God (theou).


Rom. 1:11 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) I long (epipothō) to see (idein) you (humas), in order that (hina) I may share together with (metadō) you (humin) some (ti) Spirit-based (pneumatikon) gracious thing (charisma), for you (humas) to be stabilized (stērichthēnai) into (eis) the (to) [evangelism, v9, RE].


(On account of apostle Paul's use of pneumatikon here in Rom. 1:11 and in 1 Cor. 12:1, and Paul's use of charisma here, a gracious thing always being a tangible gift or manifestation from God into a believer's life, I believe Paul refers to teaching the Rome believers about how to manifest God's gift of his Spirit within them, to teach them about the manifestations of the Spirit (1 Cor. 12). This is why the devil kept trying to block apostle Paul from going back to Rome, and from going anywhere, so Paul couldn't teach those believers how to become Spiritually powerful.  The devil and demon spirits are always trying to stop a believer's Spiritual growth.  Holy Spirit is always more powerful than the devil, or any demon spirits (Mat. 10:25; Acts 1:4-8; Rom. 8:9-11, 37; 1 Cor. 12:6; 2 Cor. 2:14, 13:3-5; Gal. 1:16; Eph. 1:19-20, 4:13, 6:13-18; Phil. 2:13, 4:13; Col. 1:27-29; 1 Thes. 2:13; 2 Tim. 1:7; 1 John 4:4, 5:4-5). For passages where pneumatikos or inflected forms of it are used, see Rom. 1:11, 15:27; 1 Cor. 2:13-15, 3:1, 9:11, 10:3-4, 12:1, 14:1, 37, 15:44-46; Gal. 6:1; Eph. 1:3, 5:19, 6:12; Col. 1:9, 3:16; 1 Pet. 2:5.)


Rom. 1:12 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) this (touto) [evangelism, v9, RE] is (estin) to be called alongside together (sumparaklēthēnai) among (en) you (humin), through (dia) [the sake, AE] of the (tēs) belief (pisteōs) among (en) one another (allēlois), [the belief, RE] of both (te) you (humōn) and (kai) of me (emou).


Rom. 1:13 (LIT/UBS4) But (de) I desire (thelō) you (humas) absolutely not (ou) to be ignorant (agnoein), brothers (adelphoi), that (hoti) many times (pollakis) I caused myself to plan before (proethemēn) to come (elthein) to (pros) you (humas), (and (kai) I was cut off (ekōluthēn) until (achri) the (tou) next (deuro) [time, AE]);


in order that (hina) I may have (schō) some (tina) produce (karpon) among (en) you (humin) also (kai), as down (kathos) among (en) the (tois) remaining (loipois) ethnic groups (ethnesin) also (kai)!


Rom. 1:14 (LIT/UBS4) Both (te) to Hellenes (Hellēsin) and (kai) to barbarians (barbarous), both (te) to wise ones (sophois) and (kai) to unperceptive ones (anoētois), I am (eimi) [a] debtor (opheiletēs).


Rom. 1:15 (LIT/UBS4) Thusly (houtōs) [my desire to come to you, v13, RE] [is] down on account (kat’) of the (to) passionate predisposition (prothumon) of me (eme) to evangelize (euangelisasthai) to you (humin) also (kai), to the ones (tois) in (en) Rome (Rhōmē).


Rom. 1:16 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) I am absolutely not caused to be ashamed (ou epaischunomai) of the (to) Evangelism (euangelion);


because (gar) it is (estin) inherently powered (dunamis) of God (theou) into (eis) wholeness (sōtērian) to anyone (panti), to the one (tō) believing (pisteuonti), both (te) to [a] Judean (Ioudaiō) first (prōton), and (kai) to [a] Hellene (Hellēni);


Rom. 1:17 (LIT/UBS4) because (gar) righteousness (dikaiosunē) of God (theou) is revealed (apokaluptetai) in (en) it (autō), out (ek) of belief (pisteōs) into (eis) belief (pistin)


Down according to as (kathōs) it has been written (gegraptai), “But (de) the (ho) righteous one (dikaios) shall cause himself to live (zēsetai) out (ek) of belief (pisteōs).” 


(See Hab. 2:4)


Rom. 1:18 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) anger (orgē) of God (theou) is revealed (apokaluptetai) from (ap’) heaven (ouranou) over (epi) [the sake, AE] of all (pasan) impiety (asebeian) and (kai) unrighteousness (adikian) of mortals (anthrōpōn), for the (tōn) [mortals, RE] holding down (katechontōn) the (tēn) Truth (alētheian) in (en) unrighteousness (adikian);


(For the revealing by fire of those who are and who are not righteous, see Dan. 3; Mat. 3:10-12, 7:19, *13:24-51; Luke 3:9, 16-17, 12:49; John 15:6; Rom. 1:18; *1 Cor. 3:12-15; 2 Thes. 1:7-9; Heb. 10:26-29, 12:18; 1 Pet. 1:5-7; 2 Pet. 3:7-12; Jude 1:5-7; Rev. 8:5-11, 9:13-21; 14:18-20, 16:8-9, 17:16, *18:1-24, 20:7-15)


Rom. 1:19 (LIT/UBS4) through the reason that (dioti) the (to) [Truth, v18, RE] known (gnōston) of God (theou) is (estin) manifest (phaneron) among (en) them (autois), because (gar) the (ho) God (theos) manifested (ephanerōsen) [Truth, v18, RE] to them (autois).


Rom. 1:20 (LIT/UBS4) Because (gar) the (ta) unseeable things (aorata) of him (autou), from (apo) [the] creation (ktiseōs) of [the] cosmos (kosmou), are being caused to stare down (kathoratai), both (te) the (hē) everlasting (aidios) inherent power (dunamis) of him (autou), and (kai) godliness (theiotēs);


they being perceived (nooumena) [through, v19, RE] the (tois) things made (poiēmasin);


into (eis) the (to) [impiety and unrighteousness, v18, RE] of them (autous) to be (einai) without [an] apology (anapologētous);


Rom. 1:21 (LIT/UBS4) through the reason that (dioti) they having known (gnontes) the (ton) God (theon), they absolutely did not glorify (ouch edoxasan) [the God, RE] as (hōs) God (theon), nor (ē) did they give thanks well (ēucharistēsan)!  


BUT (all’), they were emptied (emataiōthēsan) in (en) the (tois) dialogues (dialogismois) of them (autōn), and (kai) the (hē) unintelligent (asunetos) heart (kardia) of them (autōn) was darkened (eskotisthē)!


Rom. 1:22 (LIT/UBS4) They claiming (phaskontes) to be (einai) wise ones (sophoi), they were made moronic (emōranthēsan).


(For a believer in his discipleship to Christ Jesus being led to being stripped of the power of holy Spirit through false teaching, see Mat. 15:9; John 8:31-47; Rom. 1:21-22; 2 Cor. 10:5-6; 11:13-15; Eph. 5:6-12; *Col. 2:8; 2 Tim. 3:1-15, 4:3-4; Tit. 1:10-14)


Rom. 1:23 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) they changed (ēllaxan) the (tēn) glory (doxan) of the (tou) incorruptible (aphthartou) God (theou) in (en) to [a] likeness (homoiōmati) of [an] icon (eikonos) of [a] corruptible (phthartou) mortal (anthrōpou), and (kai) of flying animals (peteinōn), and (kai) of four-footed animals (tetrapodōn), and (kai) of crawling animals (herpetōn);


Rom. 1:24 (LIT/UBS4) through which (dio) [unintelligent heart, v21, RE] the (ho) God (theos) passed them aside3860 (paredōken autous) in (en) to the (tais) lusts (epithumiais) of the (tōn) hearts (kardiōn) of them (autōn);


into (eis) uncleanliness (akatharsian) of the (tou) [hearts, RE] for the (ta) bodies (sōmata) of them (autōn) to be dishonored (atimazesthai) among (en) them (autois);


Rom. 1:25 (LIT/UBS4) ones who (hoitines) changed (metēllaxan) the (tēn) Truth (alētheian) of the (tou) God (theou) in (en) to the (tō) falsehood (pseudei), and (kai) they were revered (esebasthēsan);


and (kai) they served (elatreusan) the (tē) creation (ktisei) alongside (para) of the one (ton) having created (ktisanta) [it, AE], who (hos) is (estin) eulogized (eulogētos) into (eis) the (tous) ages (aiōnas), truly (amēn)!


Rom. 1:26 (LIT/UBS4) Through (dia) this (touto) [impiety and unrighteousness, v18, RE] the (ho) God (theos) passed them aside3860 (paredōken autous) into (eis) sufferings (pathē) of dishonor (atimias).   


Because (gar) both (te), the (hai) breasted ones (thēleiai) of them (autōn) changed (metēllaxan) the (tēn) physical (phusikēn) use (chrēsin) into (eis) the (tēn) [use, RE] besides (para) [the use, RE] of physical nature (phusin),


Rom. 1:27 (LIT/UBS4) and (kai) likewise (homoiōs) the (hoi) males (arsenes) also (kai), having let go (aphentes) of the (tēn) physical (phusikēn) use (chrēsin) of the (tēs) breasted one (thēleias), they were burned out (exekauthēsan) in (en) the (tē) craving (orexei) of them (autōn) into (eis) one another (allēlous);


males (arsenes) in (en) to males (arsesin) causing themselves to work down (katergazomenoi) the (tēn) indecent behavior (aschēmosunēn), and (kai) the (tēn) anti-wage473 (antimisthian) which (hēn) is being required (edei) [because, AE] of the (tēs) wandering (planēs) of them (autōn), taking away (apolambanontes) [the anti-wage473] in (en) to themselves (heautois)


(See Rom. 1:22-32; 1 Cor. 6:9; Jude 1:6-8)


Rom. 1:28 (LIT/UBS4) And (kai) down as (kathos) they absolutely did not prove (ouk edokimasan) to hold (echein) the (ton) God (theos) in (en) experiential knowledge (epignōsei), the (ho) God (theon) passed them aside3860 (paredōken autous) into (eis) [an] unapproved (adokimon) mind (noun), to do (poiein) the things (ta) not (mē) being passed down (kathēkonta)!


Rom. 1:29 (LIT/UBS4) They having been filled full (peplērōmenous) for all (pasē) unrighteousness (adikia), for evil (ponēria), for covetousness (pleonexia), for malice (kakia),


[being] full (mestous) of envy (phthonou), of murder (phonou), of rivalry (eridos), of deceit (dolou), of [a] malicious ethic (kakoētheias),


Rom. 1:30 (LIT/UBS4) [being] rumor-makers (psithuristas), down-talkers (katalalous), god-haters (theostugeis), hubris ones (hubristas), arrogant ones (huperēphanous), vain ones (alazonas), inventors (epheuretas) of malicious things (kakōn),


Rom. 1:31 (LIT/UBS4) dissuaded (apeitheis) to parents (goneusin), unintelligent (asunetous), unagreeable (asunthetous), unaffectionate (astorgous), unmerciful (aneleēmonas),


Rom. 1:32 (LIT/UBS4) ones who (hoitines) having experientially known (epignontes) of the (to) righteous purpose (dikaiōmia) of the (tou) God (theou), that (hoti) the ones (hoi) habitually practicing (prassontes) the (ta) things of these (toiauta) are (eisin) ones worthy (axioi) of death (thanatou);


[death, RE] absolutely not (ou) only (monon) of them (auta) doing (poiousin) [things of these, RE], BUT (alla), [death, RE] for the (tois) [ones who, RE] together well approve (suneudokousin) also (kai) of habitually practicing (prassousin) [things of these, RE]!


(For ones bedding males, see Rom. 1:22-32; 1 Cor. 6:9; 1 Tim. 1:10; Jude 1:6-8)